Saturday, March 3, 2012

Beautiful Baku, the Capital of Azerbaijan; Image Gallery

Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal parts: the downtown and the old Inner City (21.5 ha). Baku's urban population at the beginning of 2009 was estimated at just over two million people. 

Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts (raions) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 km (37 mi) away from Baku. The Inner City of Baku along with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. According to the Lonely Planet's ranking Baku is also among the world's top ten destinations for urban nightlife.

The city is the scientific, cultural and industrial center of Azerbaijan. Many sizeable Azerbaijani institutions have their headquarters there, including SOCAR, one of the world's top 100 companies and others. The Baku International Sea Trade Port, sheltered by the islands of the Baku Archipelago to the east and the Absheron Peninsula to the north, is capable of handling two million tons of general and dry bulk cargoes per year. Baku is to host the 57th Eurovision Song Contest in May 2012, and the city is currently bidding to host the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Let's have a look on the Image Gallery of Baku. I am sure you will enjoy it.

The Bibi-Heybat Mosque (Azerbaijani: Bibiheybət məscidi) is a historical mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan. The existing structure, built in the 1990s, is a recreation of the mosque with the same name built in the 13th century by Shirvanshah Farrukhzad II Ibn Ahsitan II, which was completely destroyed by the Bolsheviks in 1936.

The Bibi-Heybat Mosque includes the tomb of Ukeyma Khanum (a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad), and today is the spiritual center for the Muslims of the region and one of the major monuments of Islamic architecture in Azerbaijan.

It's locally known as "the mosque of Fatima" which Alexandre Dumas using the same name, described the mosque during his visit in the 1840s.

The mosque was built over the tomb of the daughter of the seventh Shiite Imam - Musa al-Kazim, who fled to Baku from persecution of caliphs. On the tomb there is carved on a stone inscription indicating that Ukeyma Khanum belongs to the sacred family: "Here was buried Ukeyma Khanum, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, the granddaughter of the sixth Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, the daughter of the Seventh Imam Musei Kazym, sister of the eighth Imam Riza".

The modern restored mosque is a classic example of the Shirvan architectural school. The mosque has three domes, which have kept the traditional corrugated galvanised iron shape of the old mosque and two minarets. The domes are decorated with the green and turquoise mirrors, which are bordered with gilded inscriptions from Qur'an. Men's praying room is located on the south side of the complex, while women - on the north side. Between them is the mausoleum.

The builders used local varieties of limestone such as Gulbaht. On the inside the walls of marble carvings with calligraphic inscriptions such as muhaggah, Suls, Jami-Suls, Kufic, kufi-shatrandzh, musalsag, sofa and tugra. Also widely used such ornamental compositions as islimi, shukyufa, Bandy-Rumi, zendzhiri Selcuk (Seljuk chain), Shamsi, Jafari and Achma-yumma.

The mosque was designed by the famous Azerbaijani architect Sanan Sultanov.

SOCAR Tower is the tallest under construction building in Baku, Azerbaijan. It is located on Heydar Aliyev avenue. The building will be the headquarters of the SOCAR (State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic). Construction has started in 2010 and will be completed in 2013. It will also be the tallest building in whole Caucasus.

Designed by Heerim Architects form South Korea, the two towered project will rise from an elongated, canopy-like podium and snake their way skywards. Curving into each other, the seemingly shorter tower almost looks like its resting its head on the chest of the taller tower, the taller towers peak slightly bending over it in a confident, reassuring manner. The towers will have 40 floors, at a height of 200 meters. Covering an area of 12,000 square meters and providing 100.000 sqm of usage area, the headquarter will mainly house office space but will also have conference and sports facilities, a guest house and retail spaces, food outlets to keep the expected 2000 employees in the tower firing on all cylinders.

The building design will be based on a composite system of steel construction with reinforced concrete walls. The project of the building, resistant to nine-magnitude earthquake by the Richter scale, was tested in special international labs in Canada in a virtual environment, designed for the wind with the speed of 190 kilometers per hour.

The building, designed by South Korean Heerim Architects & Planners Co. Ltd, based on the concept of "wind and fire”, will be built by Turkish Tekfen Construction and Installation Co.Inc

Tofiq Bahramov Stadium (Azerbaijani: Tofiq Bəhramov adına Respublika Stadionu) is a multi-purpose stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan. It is currently used mostly for football matches. It serves as the home ground of FK Baku and the Azerbaijan national football team and holds 30,000, making it the largest stadium in the country.

The Tofiq Bahramov Stadium was built in 1951. Its construction started before the World War II in 1939, but was suspended. When its construction resumed, it was finished by the German prisoners of war. Initially the stadium was named after Joseph Stalin and built in form of C (Cyrillic: Cтaлин). After the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956 (denunciation of Stalin) it was renamed after Vladimir Lenin. In 1993, the stadium was named after the famous football referee Tofik Bahramov who passed away that year.

In 2011, Presidential Reserve Fund of the State Budget of Azerbaijan for 2011 allocated 10 million USD for capital repairs and reconstruction of the stadium as it could be used as potenial venue for Eurovision Song Contest 2012. According to the stadium's director Akif Ismayilov, stadium will be provided with new seats, locker rooms, lighting system as well as with football field for children. Furthermore, the stadium will be supplied with heating system and roof will be constructed which means the stadium will lose its “C” form.

On 19 May 2011, organizers of the contest announced that they may use the stadium which contains 37,000 seats instead of a special concert complex with 20,000 seats which is to be purposefully built near National Flag Square in Baku.

Heydar Aliyev International Airport (IATA: GYD, ICAO: UBBB) (former Bina International Airport, Azerbaijani: Heydər Əliyev adına beynəlxalq hava limanı) is the international airport in Azerbaijan located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of the capital Baku. The airport is the home of Azerbaijan Airlines, the national flag carrier. The airport has been renamed after former President of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev, on March 10, 2004 and its IATA code has been changed (the former IATA code was BAK). The airport has two terminals (northern and southern) and the Baku cargo terminal. A truck parking and a hotel are nearby. The airline Silk Way Airlines has its head office on the airport property.

A new terminal in the Baku International Airport is under construction and will be commissioned in 2013. After the introduction of the new terminal of the Baku international airport in 2013, the terminal currently operated will be used for domestic flights. The new airport terminal is designed for the annual maintenance of about three million passengers. The total usable area of the new terminal is 58 thousand square meters. The length of the runway in the new terminal complex will be 4,000 meters, and the width will be 75 meters.

Baku State University (BSU, Azerbaijani: Bakı Dövlət Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. Established in 1919 by the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the University started with faculties of history and philology; physics and mathematics; law and medicine with an initial enrollment of 1094. The first rector of BSU was V.I.Razumovsky, a former professor of surgery at Kazan University.

In 1930, the government ordered the University shut down in accordance with a reorganization of higher education, and the University was replaced with the Supreme Pedagogical Institute. However, in 1934 the University was reestablished again, and continued to work through the difficult years of World War II experiencing a shortage of faculty members.

By its 40th anniversary in 1959, the University already had 13 faculties. The Azerbaijan Medical University and Azerbaijan State Economic University were both spun-offs of the original respective faculties at BSU.

Among the graduates of BSU were two former presidents of Azerbaijan, Abulfaz Elchibey and Heydar Aliyev. The former graduated from the Faculty of Arabic Language and Literature, while the latter, who dominated Azerbaijan's political life for over 30 years, from the Faculty of History. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Lev Landau studied at BSU between 1922 and 1924.

BSU is the only university from Azerbaijan Republic ranked by international ranking organizations, such as University Ranking by Academic Performance and currently ranks at 1951 in the University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP).

BSU was established on September 1, 1919 by the decision of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. In its first year, the University had two faculties - Faculty of Philology and the Medical Faculty, and an enrollment of 1094 students.

Among the leading teachers at the University in 1920-40 were Azerbaijani writer Abdurrahim bek Haqverdiyev, orientalist – Professor P.K. Juze, Professor A.O. Makovelski, Professor A.O. Mishel and other scholars. During that period the administration of the university invited to Baku such teachers as N.Y. Marr, V.V. Bartold, the academician of the Eastern Science Academy Fuad bek Kuprulluzade.

In 1930 the university was liquidated according to the decision made by Council of the People’s Commissar on reorganization and instead there was created High Pedagogical Institute. Only in 1943 the State University resumed its activity and very soon became Republic’s scientific-pedagogical center. Despite the great shortage of university teachers because most of teachers went to Second World War, University managed to keep its leading position. In 1945 the teachers of the University took active part in foundation of The Azerbaijan Academy of Science. Most of the University’s functioning in the Republic, such as Azerbaijan Medical University, Azerbaijan University of Economy, Azerbaijan State Pedagogical University and others were founded on the basis of our University. The years following after the year 1969 can be considered as the years of development in the direction of knowledge and science. Covering the wide historical period of time, during those years there were founded faculties on modern specialties, departments and about 30 scientific research laboratories started their activity. As a result there was created a strong assurance of future development.

Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University (AACU; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Memarlıq və İnşaat Universiteti) is a state university located in Baku, Azerbaijan, specializing in civil engineering and architecture. The university was established in 1975 as spin-off from the Azerbaijan Technical University, named Azerbaijan Civil Engineering Institute.

AACU started out in 1920 as a Construction faculty within the Baku Polytechnic Institute. In 1930–34, AACU operated as independent Construction and Architecture Institute, from 1934 – as a faculty within Azerbaijan Industrial Institute, and from 1951 – as a faculty within the Azerbaijan Technical University. In 1975, Azerbaijan Civil Engineering Institute was established by the decision of Azerbaijan SSR Council of Ministers, and in 1992, the Institute received the status of a university.

Azerbaijan State Carpet Museum (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dövlət Xalça Muzeyi), also known as the State Museum of Azerbaijan Carpet and Applied Art (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Xalçası və Xalq Tətbiqi Sənəti Dövlət Muzeyi), is a museum located on Neftchiler Avenue, in the center of Baku, Azerbaijan. The museum displays Azerbaijani carpets and rug items of various weaving techniques and materials from various periods. It is named after Latif Karimov and has the largest collection of Azerbaijani carpets in the world. 

The museum does research and public service work. Every year, state and international exhibitions are organized and catalogues on carpets are printed by the museum. The museum has also held exhibitions in more than 30 countries including France, Germany, England, Japan, Holland. In 1998, the museum participated in a UNESCO-organized exhibition in Paris dedicated to Fuzuli and in 1999 dedicated to 1,300th anniversary of the Book of Dede Korkut and displayed carpets, folk applied art items, including copper jugs, mugs, buckets and saddle-bags.

Azerbaijan Medical University, named after Nariman Narimanov (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Tibb Universiteti) is the formal name of the public medical school located in Baku, Azerbaijan. Due to difficulties with translation, the school is sometimes called: Azerbaijan Medical University, Azerbaijan State Medical University, Azerbaijan State Medical Institute, or simply Medical University, with any of the preceding including the "named after N. Narimanov" or full "Nariman Narimanov". The school is named after Nariman Narimanov, a famous Azeri in Soviet politics, notably Party Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union.

Founded in 1930, the medical school grew out of the Department of Medicine of Baku State University. The school has 8000 students in 74 academic departments, with a faculty of scientists, physicians and lecturers numbering just over 1000.

Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS) (Azeri: Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası (AMEA)), located in Baku, is the main state research organization in Azerbaijan. It was established in 1935.

The Academy was based on the Azerbaijan Society for Scientific Research and Studies, which was first affiliated with Baku State University and later with the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1945, the USSR Council of People's Commissars ordered the society to be reorganized into the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR. During its first year, the Academy numbered 15 members; Uzeyir Hajibeyov and Samad Vurgun among them.

The Presidium is currently located in the historical Ismailiyya building on Istiglaliyyat Street in the center of Baku.

Azerbaijan State Economic University (ASEU) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dövlət İqtisad Universiteti (ADIU)) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan State Economic University (ASEU) that founded in 1930 is one of the biggest educational institutions of the South Caucasus countries. At ASEU there are functioning 14 faculties, 16 thousand students get education and there are magistrates upon 57 specialties, more than 1000 teachers work there, including 62 professors and 344 docents, among which there are real members of National Academy of Sciences, New-York Academy of Sciences, winners of state rewards, deserved teachers and scientists. ASEU is a full member of the European Association of Universities, Association of Islam Countries Universities, University Council of Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization and Eurasian Association of Universities. There are 650 students and magistrates from 10 countries of the world getting education at ASEU.

In 2007 the informative-library center and the student carrier center has started functioning at ASEU and also a new 7 floor educational building that meets the highest world standards was opened. In the same year ASEU received “European quality” reward and the International reward named after Socrat that founded by the European Business-assembly, European Club of Rectors and European Association of Universities.

The strategic direction of ASEU development is to bring up the educational process to world standards by 2010, finishing the international accreditation process and full joining to Bologna System, also more active participation on the international market of educational services.

Azerbaijan State Oil Academy (ASOA) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dövlət Neft Akademiyası (ADNA)) is an institution located in Baku, Azerbaijan.

The rise of what became ASOA tied to the rise of the petroleum industry in the Baku region. By 1887 the preparatory technical school that would become Baku Polytechnicum was established in Baku and by 1910 it had integrated a curriculum related to the growing oil industry. However, the ratio of Azeris to non-Azeris was so skewed that of the 494 students studying at the school in 1916, only 20 were Azeri. On November 14, 1920, after the invasion of the Red Army and the establishment of the fledgling Azerbaijan SSR, the new government decreed that Baku Polytechnicum would close and be replaced by Baku Polytechnical Institute, a more traditional polytechnic institute and the beginnings of the current incarnation. The new school focused on training engineers in a broad range of industries, from agriculture to oil. By 1923 the school graduated its first 3 students and by 1927 it had risen to 289 graduates.

In 1993 the school changed its curricula into a more Western model, with its first bachelors and masters degree candidates graduating in 1999. ASOA worked with Western universities to Westernize and modernize its programs, in particular with Georgia State University to develop a modern Masters of Business Administration program. ASOA currently has programs with a dozen international universities. In 2009, it was the target of a shooting spree which killed 13 people.

ASOA trains students in more than 50 fields; Geological Engineering, Computer Sciences, Metallurgical Engineering, Hydrogeology Engineering, Geophysics Engineering, Mountain-Mining Engineering, Petroleum and Gas Constructions Engineering, Heating Energetics Engineering, Equipment Production Engineering, Technology Machinery and Apparatus Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Communication and Radiotechnics Engineering, Mechatronics and Robotechnology Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Information Technology and Systems Engineering, Re-manufacturing and Repair Engineering, Metrology, Standardization and Certification Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Automatization Engineering, Management, Engineering Economics, Marketing and so on.

On April 30, 2009, a shooting spree occurred on the academy in which thirteen people were killed. The perpetrator was Farda Gadirov, a Georgian citizen of Azerbaijani descent.

The Rashid Behbudov State Song Theatre (Azerbaijani: Rəşid Behbudov adına Dövlət Mahnı Teatrı) is located in Azerbaijan's capital Baku, on the Rashid Behbudov Street, and is named after Rashid Behbudov, who founded it. The building's facade features columns with Ionic order and ornamented pediment with lyre on it.

The theatre's repertoire consists of folk songs, mugams and tasnifs, as well as of works of national composers like Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Gara Garayev, Fikrat Amirov or Tofig Guliyev. Popular artists, such as Zaur Rzayev, Ilhama Guliyeva, Mubariz Taghiyev, Azar Zeynalov, Zohra Abdullayeva and Aybaniz Hashimova, worked in the theatre.

The theatre is open from 9 a.m. to 18 p.m.

Azerbaijan Technical University (AzTU; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Texniki Universiteti) is a public university, specialized in engineering, located in Baku, Azerbaijan. The University has 9 schools and 54 departments, 884 faculty members and approximately 6500 students.

The University traces its history to the much older Baku Polytechnical Institute. On November 14, 1920, the Soviet government decreed that the previous technical school, Baku Polytechnicum, would close and be replaced by Baku Polytechnical Institute, a more traditional polytechnic institute. The new school focused on training engineers in a broad range of industries: agriculture, civil engineering, electromechanical, economics and oil. The new school went through many name changes over the years as its emphasis changed to meet the needs of Azerbaijan. In 1923 the school changed its name to Azerbaijan Polytechnical Institute. In March 1929, the Azerbaijan Communist Party decreed that the school be split into three independent schools covering agriculture, economics and oil.

However, the expanding needs engineers in other areas outside oil resulted in expansion in the school's curriculum and the school changed names again in 1934, this time to the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (Az. I.I.) as it was merged with civil engineering. World War II taxed the Soviet Union and schools like Az. I.I. struggled to stay open. At the end of the War, there was great demand for oil engineers in the Soviet Union and the school trained them in great numbers. In 1950, the government founded a separate Azerbaijan Polytechnical Institute (Az. P.I.) and moved non-petrochemical curricula to the new school so that Az. I.I. could focus on the oil industry (Az. I.I. went on to eventually become the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy). In 1970, a branch of AzPI was founded in Ganja. In 1993, AzPI changed status and became Azerbaijan Technical University.

Azerbaijan University of Languages (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dillər Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. The student body consists of approximately 4000 undergraduates and 900 graduate (master's degree) students. The University has a combined faculty of more than 700 teachers.

The beginnings of the University can be traced to 1937, with Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute's opening of the School of Foreign Languages. In 1940, the Azerbaijan Communist Party decreed that a separate Institute of Foreign Languages be formed, but outbreak of World War II caused the new Institute to quickly fold back into Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute. After the war, the government of Azerbaijan SSR created the Azerbaijan Institute of Foreign Languages in 1948, but it was folded into the Azerbaijan Institute of Russian Language and Literature in 1959. Finally, in 1973, the Azerbaijan Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages was established as an independent institution.

In 1996 the school was renamed the Azerbaijan State Institute of Languages, and in 2000 the Institute was given university status and renamed as the Azerbaijan University of Languages.

The University maintains close relations with UNESCO, operating a UNESCO Translation Department as well as hosting a UNESCO-sponsored faculty chair.

Black January (Azerbaijani: Qara Yanvar), also known as Black Saturday or the January Massacre, was a violent crackdown on the Azerbaijani independence movement in Baku on January 19–20, 1990, pursuant to a state of emergency during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

In a resolution of January 22, 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR declared that the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of January 19, used to impose emergency rule in Baku and military deployment, constituted an act of aggression. Black January is seen as the rebirth of the Azerbaijan Republic. It was one of the occasions during the glasnost and perestroika era in which the USSR used force against dissidents.

According to one report, 93 Azerbaijanis and 29 Soviet soldiers were killed in the street skirmishes. Other reports state that 21 soldiers were killed and 90 wounded in the fighting. However, how the soldiers died is still disputed. The soldiers' death toll was claimed by Soviet authorities to have resulted from armed resistance, although some of the soldiers could have been victims of friendly fire.

“Proclaiming the state of emergency in Baku and sending army to the city was the biggest mistake of my political life...” From M. Gorbachev’s speech in Istanbul in April 27, 1995

“Azerbaijanis will never forgive the tragic death of his sons and daughters to anyone...” From the declaration of the Chairperson of Supreme Council of Azerbaijan SSR E. Gafarova in January 21, 1990

More than 130 people died from wounds received that night and during subsequent violent confrontations and incidents that lasted into February; the majority of these were civilians killed by Soviet soldiers. More than 700 civilians were wounded. Hundreds of people were detained, only a handful of whom were put on trial for alleged criminal offenses. Civil liberties were severely curtailed.

Then-USSR Defence Minister Dimitri Yazov stated that the use of force in Baku was intended to prevent the de facto takeover of the Azerbaijani government by the noncommunist opposition, to prevent their victory in upcoming free elections (scheduled for March 1990), to destroy them as a political force, and to ensure that the Communist government remained in power.

Human Rights Watch report, entitled "Black January in Azerbaijan", states: "Indeed, the violence used by the Soviet Army on the night of January 19–20 was so out of proportion to the resistance offered by Azerbaijanis as to constitute an exercise in collective punishment. Since Soviet officials have stated publicly that the purpose of the intervention of Soviet troops was to prevent the ouster of the Communist-dominated government of the Republic of Azerbaijan by the nationalist-minded, noncommunist opposition, the punishment inflicted on Baku by Soviet soldiers may have been intended as a warning to nationalists, not only in Azerbaijan, but in the other Republics of the Soviet Union."

"The subsequent events in the Baltic Republics—where, in a remarkable parallel to the events in Baku, alleged civil disorder was cited as justification for violent intervention by Soviet troops—further confirms that the Soviet Government has demonstrated that it will deal harshly with nationalist movements," continues the Human Rights Watch report.

The Wall Street Journal editorial of January 4, 1995, stated: "It was Mr. Gorbachev's recall, who in January 1990 chose to defend his use of violence against the independence-seeking Azerbaijan on the grounds that the people of this then-Soviet republic were heavily armed gangs of hooligans and drug-traffickers who were destabilizing the country and quite possibly receiving support from foreign governments."

Gross violation of human rights and mass manslaughter in Azerbaijan caused little reaction of Western powers. Mikhail Gorbachev's regime was adamantly supported against "heavily armed gangs of hooligans and drug-traffickers."

The brutal use of force in Azerbaijan created an anti-force. It buried chances of preserving the collapsing empire and resurrected national movement for independence.

In December 1991, Azerbaijan became independent.

Other estimates indicate that between 133 and 137 civilians died with unofficial number reaching 300. Up to 800 were injured and 5 went missing. An additional 26 people were killed in Neftchala and Lankaran regions of the country.

On October 18, 1991, the Azerbaijan parliament restored the country's independence. Gorbachev later apologised to Azerbaijan by stating: "The declaration of a state emergency in Baku was the biggest mistake of my political career". In 1994, the National Assembly of Azerbaijan adopted a full political and legal evaluation of the Black January events. According to the decree of the President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev from December 16, 1999, all victims of the crackdown were awarded an honorary title of the "Martyr of January 20" (Azerbaijani: 20 yanvar şəhidi).

January 20 is marked as Martyrs' Day (or literally, "the Day of the Nationwide Sorrow") in Azerbaijan.

The Hajibeyov Baku Academy of Music (Azeri: Hacıbəyov adına Bakı Musiqi Akademiyası) is a music school in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was established in 1920 in Baku and was previously known as the Hajibeyov Azerbaijan State Conservatoire.

In 1920, Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov began a movement aimed at propagating classical music among the people. His report presented at the Azerbaijani People's Commissariat of Education (early Soviet analogue of a Ministry of Education) offering the establishment of a high-level music education institution resulted in the approval of his proposal. Thus, the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire was founded on 25 May 1920. Hajibeyov became one of its first instructors. In the 1920s, he established the Oriental Department, where Azeri folk music was taught both traditionally (orally) and by European methods, i.e. using notes. Along with composer Muslim Magomayev, he developed the textbook Azeri Folk Songs published in 1927. In 1939, Hajibeyov was made head of the Conservatoire. In 1991, it was renamed Hajibeyov Baku Academy of Music.

During World War II, the conservatoire executives organized hundreds of concerts for military units and soldiers who recovered in hospitals. It was enhanced with the Bulbul Specialized Secondary Music School in 1931, the Music Studio School in 1980, and the Mammadova Opera Studio in 1984.

There are three faculties and 18 departments. The Academy offers graduating students master's, kandidat's, and doctorate degrees. There are two research laboratories - the Restoration and Improvement of Ancient Musical Instruments Laboratory established in 1991, and the Investigation of Professional Oral Music Traditions Laboratory, established in 1992).

Baku Boulevard (Azerbaijani: Dənizkənarı Milli Park, also known as National Park) is a promenade that runs parallel to Baku's seafront. Its history goes back more than 100 years, to a time when Baku oil barons built their mansions along the Caspian shore and when the seafront was artificially built up inch by inch.

The park is about 3 km and 750 m in size and located in south coast of the Caspian Sea. It starts at the Palace of Hand Games and ends at Freedom Square. According to the Azerbaijan Cabinet of Ministers, the boulevard's size is expected to reach 26 km, which will cover areas including Bibiheybət and Bay of Baku by 2015.

The project on expansion of the Baku boulevard aims at creating more comfortable conditions for the residents of the capital city and the guests to have a rest and take sports in more comfortable conditions at the Caspian seashore. In 2011, it was announced that boulevard will be extended to the to the National Flag Square before the beginning of the Eurovision Song Contest 2012.

In 2010, a multi-story shopping mall Park Bulvar, Baku Business Centre and 5D cinema were opened in this promenade as part of Government's regeneration policy to boost shopping and leisure in Baku.The square has often been the scene of public meetings, cultural gatherings, celebrations, ceremonies, parades, concerts and has lately become the venue for the city's extensive New Year celebrations.

Baku Metro (Azerbaijani: Bakı Metropoliteni) is a rapid transit system serving Baku the capital of Azerbaijan. First opened on November 6, 1967, during the time of the Soviet Union, it has the features found in most other ex-Soviet systems, including very deep central stations, and exquisite decorations that blend traditional Azerbaijani national motifs with Soviet ideology. At present the system has 34.6 kilometers of bi-directional tracks with 23 stations.

During the final decades of the Russian Empire the port city of Baku became a large metropolis due to the discovery of Oil in the Caspian Sea. By the 1930s, it was the capital of the Azerbaijani SSR and the largest city in Soviet Transcaucasia. The first plans for a rapid-transit system date to the 1930s upon the adoption of a new general plan for the city development.

Having survived the Second World War without falling to the Germans, and even further becoming a strategic hub of the Caucasus, the population further increased past the one million mark, a legal requirement of Soviet law for allowing construction of a Metro system. In 1947 the Soviet Cabinet of Ministers issued a decree authorising its construction, which began in 1951. On November 6, 1967, Baku metro became the fifth rapid-transit system of the Soviet Union when the first 6.5 kilometers of track along with a depot were inaugurated, in honour of the fiftieth anniversary of the October Revolution.

At present, there are several projects, only two of which is under construction. In 2011, the Chief Executive of the Baku Metro, Taghi Ahmadov, announced plans to construct 70 new stations by 2040. These will serve the new bus complex as well as Heydar Aliyev International Airport.

Three new stations are set to open in the next three years, according to Ahmadov; Bus Terminal and Memar Əcəmi-2 will open in late 2012, while Köhnə Günəşlı and Yeni Günəşlı will start operating before 2015, according to Ahmadov.

A third metro line is also planned.

On March 19 to July 3, 1994, two series bombs was reported to have killed 27 and injured 91. Three Armenians were later arrested, charged and imprisoned in connection with the incident.

On October 28, 1995, a fire broke out between the Ulduz and Nariman Narimanov stations, killing 289 people and injuring 265 others. The fire was deemed to have been caused by electrical malfunction but the possibility of deliberate sabotage was not excluded. The fire remains the world's deadliest subway disaster.

Baku Museum of Modern Art (Azerbaijani: Bakı müasir incəsənət muzeyi) is a museum of modern art located in Baku, Azerbaijan.

The museum was built at the initiative of the First Lady of Azerbaijan, Mehriban Aliyeva and opened on 20 March 2009. It was funded by the Heydar Aliyev Foundation, of which the First Lady is head. The foundation has also created projects with the Louvre Museum and the Palace of Versailles. The museum is intended as a focus for an "eco-cultural zone" conceived of by Thomas Krens, former director of the Guggenheim Foundation, that will also include a white-sand beach, a Frank Gehry skyscraper, and a walkway that projects out over the Caspian Sea.

The museum does not have fixed subject areas. The architectural concept of the museum avoids halls with corners and has open passages and walls that meet at different angles, creating a multidimensional perspective of exhibits. Conspicuous metallic structures and the use of the color white unite all parts into a single "moving abstract structure." The chief designer of the museum is the artist Altay Sadikh-zadeh; the architect of the building is Jean Nouvel, who has designed dozens of buildings throughout Europe.

The museum focuses on the second half of the twentieth century and contains over 800 works by notable Azerbaijani painters and sculptors, particularly avant garde art of the 1960s and 1970s, including Rasim Babayev, Ashraf Murad, Gennady Brejatjuk, Fazil Najafov, Mamed Mustafaev, Aga Houssejnov, Ali Ibadullaev, Mir-Nadir Zeynalov, Fuad Salayev, Farhad Halilov, Darvin Velibekov, Eldar Mammadov, Mikail Abdurahmanov, Museib Amirov, Mahmud Rustamov, Huseyn Hagverdi, Eliyar Alimirzayev, Rashad Babayev and Altay Sadikh-zadeh. There are also non-Azerbaijani modern masterworks by Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, and Marc Chagall from private collectors. 

Exhibitions of Azerbaijani photographers such as Elnur Babayev, Fakhriya Mammadova, Ilkin Huseynov, Rena Efendi, Sergei Khrustalev, Sitara Ibrahimova, Tahmina Mammadova are often held in the museum. 

The museum includes a children's fine arts department, a video hall, a cafe, a restaurant, a separate hall for private exhibitions, a library, and a bookstore with materials pertaining to world art, architecture and sculpture.

The Baku Olympic Stadium is a retractable roof football stadium currently under construction in Boyuk Shor, Baku, Azerbaijan, and planned to be opened in 2015. The main tenant of the stadium will be Azerbaijan's national team, who will move from their current home at the Tofik Bakhramov Stadium when it is completed.

The stadium will have a capacity of 65,000 and will be based on Boyuk Shor settlement. The project will be funded by the SOCAR and the stadium includes a swimming pool complex as well. The stadium is designed by the Turkish company TOCA. The opening of the stadium is due in 2015.

The construction of the stadium started on 6th June 2011 after President Ilham Aliyev and FIFA and UEFA presidents Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini attended the ground-breaking ceremony.

The venue will host games for the Azerbaijan national football team as well as concerts. Baku Olympic Stadium will fulfil FIFA's and UEFA's highest technical recommendations and elite stadium obligations for football stadiums and is automatically qualified to arrange tournaments and qualification games in European Football Championships.

Baku is currently bidding for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Along with the stadium, there will also be built a number of hotels, parking venue (total 3,617 car places), swimming pool (13,847 square meters), and green space (81,574 square meters).

Baku Slavic University (BSU) (Azerbaijani: Bakı Slavyan Universiteti), sometimes referred to as Baku Slav University, is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan.

BSU's history is tied to Azerbaijan's at tenuous times in history with Russia. Originally called the Institute of Russian Language and Literature, the school was founded in 1946 at the direction of the Soviet Council of Peoples' Commissars as a pedagogical school for training Russian-language teachers. During Azerbaijan's time in the USSR, Russian was considered a more respected language and in Azerbaijan SSR there were both Russian- and Azeri-track schools. When Azerbaijan gained its independence, it quickly moved to restore the Azeri language to its previous dominance. As a result of this change in political climate, in 2000 the school's name was changed to its present and mission expanded to teach Slavic languages rather than just Russian.

Baku Slavic University currently also has International relations and regional studies and Translation departments.Students have chance to study not only full, but also part time and do distance learning.

The Central Bank of Azerbaijan (CBA, Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Mərkəzi Bankı) is the central bank of Azerbaijan Republic. The headquarters of the bank are located in the capital city Baku.

CBA is Azerbaijan's monetary authority, and is responsible for the conducting the country's monetary policy and regulation of the banking and payment system. Primary objective of CBA as stated in the Act on CBA is price stability. Secondary objective is to support a banking and payment stability. 

The CBA is owned by the Republic of Azerbaijan and managed by the Executive Board of the CBA. The Board is responsible for the supervising the administration and activities of the bank and for other statutory tasks. The bank is governed under the Act on the CBA, passed in 2004.

The bank has regional branch offices in Nakhichevan, Ganja, Yevlakh, Khachmaz, Goychay and Bilasuvar.

Flame Towers is a residential complex with a roof height of 182 m (597 ft) under construction in Baku, Azerbaijan. The estimated cost of Flame Towers is US$350 million. When completed, the structure will be one of the tallest buildings in Baku. Construction began in 2007, with completion in 2012

Fountains Square (Azerbaijani: Fəvvarələr meydanı) is a public square in downtown Baku, capital of Azerbaijan. The square was previously called Parapet and is often referenced to by the same name now. The name of the fountains square derives from the presence of dozens of fountains throughout the square first constructed during Soviet rule of Azerbaijan.

The square is a public gathering place, especially after business hours and during the weekend. It is an attractive tourist destination with many boutiques, restaurants, shops, hotels and passage. It starts from the Istiglaliyyat Street and walls of the Icheri Sheher and stretches through Nizami Street, also called in popular culture as the Torgovaya street running parallel to Baku Boulevard. The fountains square is a location where the city authorities hold many public festivals, shows and celebrations.

In 2010, the square was renovated by Baku authorities. A "Fountains Square" salad has been named after the square.

International Mugam Center of Azerbaijan is the center of Azerbaijani arts and music aimed to promote, preserve and popularize specific genre of Azerbaijani music Mugam. It is located in Baku Boulevard, downtown Baku.

The Mugam Center was built on initiative of the First Lady of Azerbaijan, Mehriban Aliyeva. Mugam is a genre included in the representative list of the UNESCO Intagible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The construction of the building started in April, 2005. The center covers 7,500 square meters and has 3 stories. The funding was provided by the Heydar Aliyev Foundation. The design of the building was based on elements and shapes of Tar, Azerbaijani musical instrument used in performing Mugam. The concert hall fits 350 people. The center also has a club, restraurant, study halls and record studios. The official opening of the International Mugam Center took place on December 27, 2008. The center hosts mugam festivals, concerts, recitals of various singers and performers.

Juma Masjid (Azerbaijani: Cümə məscidi) - is a mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan. 

Friday Mosque is located in historical part of the city – in Icheri Sheher. The mosque was repeatedly reconstructed during its existence period. A new Friday Mosque was constructed in the place of old mosque in means of Baku merchant Haji Shikhlali Dadashov, in 1899. It was constructed in place of old Friday Mosque and it is considered that it was appeared in that place, where a temple of zoroastrians located. A minaret, constructed in 1437, adjoins Friday Mosque.

Khazar University (Azerbaijani: Xəzər Universitəsi, which directly translates as Caspian University) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. 

Khazar University owns three campuses and a separate center in the city of Baku. One more campus is in the planning stages.

In Azerbaijan, Khazar University is recognized for providing innovative Western-style education at all levels: undergraduate, graduate, and doctoral. It also runs a lab school (Dunya School) with programs at kindergarten, elementary and secondary school levels.

Khazar University has a faculty body of about 200 lecturers, many of whom were educated and/or trained in Europe and the United States. Khazar University is the pioneer in Azerbaijan to have a flexible student-centered credit accumulation system. Khazar’s curricula meet the standards of the leading universities in advanced industrialized democracies. The primary language of instruction at Khazar is English. These factors aim to increase the academic and professional opportunities for the students and train them to work in a globalizing international environment.

Lezgi Mosque is a mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was built in 1169.

Martyrs' Lane, Alley of Martyrs or Şəhidlər Xiyabanı (transliterated to Shehidler Khiyabani), formerly The Kirov Park, is a cemetery and memorial in Baku, Azerbaijan dedicated to those killed by the Soviet Army during Black January and later to those killed in Nagorno-Karabakh War.

In the closing days of World War I fighting broke up as a result of Russian Civil War. Four groups fought for control of the area when the Russian Empire collapsed. Fighting each other were the Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Armenians and Azeris. Many people were killed in the fighting including men from a small British force sent to prevent Baku falling into the hands of the Ottomans or the Germans. 

The site first served as former Muslim cemetery, where they buried the bodies of victims of the March Events of 1918 which was a part of the localized fighting of the Russian Civil War. 

The cemetery was completely destroyed and the corpses removed from there after the Bolsheviks came to power, who created an amusement park and installed a statue of Sergei Kirov, the prominent Bolshevik leader. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the statue as well as park amusement facilities were removed and the location was reinstated as a burial site for national heroes. Some of its first men who were honoured by the newly instated memorial were those that died during Black January events of 1990 when Soviet forces invaded Baku. 

The memorial was again used for men who died in the Nagorno-Karabakh War, an armed conflict that took place from February 1988 to May 1994, in the small enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh in southwestern Azerbaijan, between the majority ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh backed by the Republic of Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. 

It's estimated that about 15,000 people are buried in the cemetery. It is located on a hill in the south of the city and offers views of the Caspian Sea. Thousands visit the shrine to pay their respects to those who had given their lives for Azerbaijan's independence. 

The Eternal Flame memorial at Martyrs' lane often covered by wreaths is usually attended by many presidents and dignitaries of Baku. 

Martyrs' Lane is also home to the large memorial to the 1,130 Turkish troops, which were killed while fighting Bolshevik and Armenian forces in the Battle of Baku in 1918. Next to the memorial there is a Martyrs mosque also built by Turks. The memorial contains a hexagonal block cladded by red granite and at each face, a pure white marble crescent-star from Turkish national flag had fitted within and unveiled by the former Turkish president Süleyman Demirel and Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev with a prestigious ceremony in September, 1999. 

Not far from the Turkish memorial there is a small wall acknowledging the British soldiers killed in the same conflict.

Other frequently visited sites in the cemetery include the graves of the journalists Chingiz Mustafayev and Salatyn Asgarova, who were killed in Nagorno-Karabakh war. 

The first tomb in the entrance of Martyrs' Lane belongs to married couple Fariza and Ilham Allahverdiyev who died during Black January. Ilham was shot dead by Soviet troops and Fariza committed a suicide in two attempts after hearing about the death of her husband. Today, for the Azerbaijani youth their tomb become a symbol of fidelity and love, while every year the tomb visited by the crowds of lovers.

The March Days, or March Events, refer to an inter-ethnic strife and massacres of up to 12,000 Azerbaijanis and other Muslims that took place between March 30 and April 2, 1918 in the city of Baku and adjacent areas of the Baku Governorate of Russian Empire. 

Facilitated by a political power struggle between Bolsheviks with support of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutiun) on one side and Azerbaijani Musavat Party on another, the events led to a suppression of Muslim revolt by Bolshevik and Dashnak forces and establishment of a short-lived Baku Commune in April 1918. 

Azerbaijan officially refers to March Days as soyqırım ('genocide'). Few other sources interpret the March events in the context of civil war unrest.

The May 1918 dispatch of the New York Times stated that "2000 were killed and 3000 were wounded in struggle between Russians and Mussulmans". Later 1919 publication by the New York Times concluded that 12,000 people were killed during the March Days of 1918. The same publication wrote that according to Azerbaijani representatives, Bolsheviks crushed Muslims with assistance from Armenians who wanted to "wipe out old enemies and seize their lands". The post-1920 New York Times editions used the same figure of 12,000 victims, as did several historians.On December 31, 2010, Governor Jim Gibbons of the U.S. State of Nevada proclaimed March 31st as the Remembrance Day of the 1918 massacres of Azerbaijani civilians in what became the first such recognition by the U.S. government institution.

Muhammad Masjid in Baku (Siniggala Masjid) – was built in the XI century in Icheri Sheher, Baku. The mosque is also known as Siniggala, for the name of its minaret – Siniggala (“damaged tower”). The mosque acquired its second name in 1723, when military squadron of Russian army, consisting of 15 warships and led by Admiral Matyushkin approached the city from seaside and demanded its surrender. Russian warships began to bomb the city after refusal. One of the shells hit in the minaret of Muhammad Mosque and damaged it. At that time blew stormy wind and took the Russian ships away to the sea. Population of the city interpreted it as a divine scourge sent to the occupants. From that time till the middle of the XIX century minaret of the mosque wasn’t reconstructed and was the symbol of persistence and courage of defendants of the tower. 

It is the first building in Azerbaijan, which is related to Islam and dated for its architectural ligature.

According to Arabic inscription which was saved in front of doorway of northern wall of the mosque, it was built by ustad-rais Muhammad the son of Abu Bakr in 471 of Hijra (1078/79). It means that the architect was not only a master-ustad, but also a rais-head of artificers’ corporation.Minaret adjoins new mosque, which was constructed on the basis of the older one’s plan. Trunk of the minaret is strong and slightly thinning. It is constructed from carefully drafted stone. Coarse and flat stalactites of tabling retain sherefe – muezzin’s balcony enclosed by stone plates. A ribbed dome completes the trunk of minaret. Narrow winding stairs are winded within the trunk. Ligature with Koranic inscription was traced under the tabling with archaic kufi alphabet.

The National Assembly (Azerbaijani: Milli Məclis), also transliterated as Milli Majlis is the legislative branch of government in Azerbaijan. The unicameral National Assembly has 125 deputies: previously 100 members were elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies and 25 were members elected by proportional representation; as of the latest election, however, all 125 deputies are returned from single-member constituencies. Milli Majlis was the first secular republican parliament in the Muslim world.

National Flag Square (Azerbaijani: Dövlət Bayrağı Meydanı) is a large city square off Neftchiler Avenue in Bayil, Baku, Azerbaijan. A flag measuring 70 by 35 meters flies on a pole 162 meters high which had been confirmed as the world's tallest by the Guinness Book of Records until being overtaken by the 165 meter Dushanbe Flagpole, Tajikistan, built by the same American designer, David Chambers. 

The upper part of National Flag Square embraces three hectares and overall the square covers 60 hectares. The square features the state symbols of Azerbaijan (the coat of arms and the anthem) and the map of the country.

President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev laid the foundation stone for National Flag Square near the naval base in Baku's Bayil settlement on 30 December 2007. The project was developed by the US firm, Trident Support, and executed by Azerbaijan’s Azenko company.

The opening of the National Flag Square took place on 1 September 2010. At the President's initiative, the National Flag Museum was also established and 9 November was declared the National Flag Day.

In 2011, it was announced that Baku Boulevard will be extended to the to the National Flag Square before the beginning of the Eurovision Song Contest 2012.

The original flag suffered almost immediate damage due to the strong prevailing winds, splitting it into two. When it was replaced with another flag, it also ripped into two, the winds wreaking even greater damage against this one than the first.

The Mirza Fatali Akhundov National Library of Azerbaijan (Azeri: Mirzə Fətəli Axundov adına Azərbaycan Milli Kitabxanası) is a central state library of Azerbaijan, located in Baku and founded in 1922. It is named after Mirza Fatali Akhundov, an Azerbaijani dramatist and philosopher. The library overlooks the Khagani Street, Rashid Behbudov Avenue and the Nizami Street. Its facades feature the statues of various writers and poets: Nizami Ganjavi, Mahsati, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, Shota Rustaveli, Alexander Pushkin and several others.

A vast, eight-stage repository occupies the four floors of the building and is equipped with special elevators, which deliver the books to the outlets. The capacity of reading rooms is 500 seats. Orders are also accepted by e-mail upon electronic registration.

Founded in 1922, the library moved to its current location on May 23, 1923. The building was designed by Azerbaijani architect Mikayil Huseynov. It was initially known as the General Library and State Book Storage of Azerbaijan. On July 11, 1939 the library gained its present name. In 1962, the library was finally granted permission to create exchange ties with the Bibliothèque nationale de France. In 2005, in accordance with the decree issued by the Cabinet of Ministers, the library took the name Akhundov Azerbaijan National Library. In 2005, it joined the Conference of European National Librarians.

The library is divided into 25 departments and 26 sectors. It has about 4.5 million items (books, printed materials, newspapers, maps, dissertations and records), including copies of all the newspapers published during the Soviet period. It receives four copies of every new book and two copies of every magazine and newspaper published in Azerbaijan. The library, the only one of its kind, has microfilm and photos of newspapers published in Azerbaijan before the Bolshevik Revolution.

Nizami Ganjavi (Persian: نظامی گنجوی‎; Kurdish: Nîzamî Gencewî, نظامی گنجوی, Nezāmi-ye Ganjavi; Azerbaijani: Nizami Gəncəvi, نظامی گنجوی;‎ 1141 to 1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi (Persian: نظامی‎), whose formal name was Niẓām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī, was a 12th-century Persian poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kurdistan region and Tajikistan. 

Nezami lived in an age of both political instability and intense intellectual activity, which his poems reflect; but little is known about his life, his relations with his patrons, or the precise dates of his works, as the many legends built up around the poet color the accounts of his later biographers.The Nizami Museum of Literature is located in Baku, Azerbaijan Republic. The Nezami Mausoleum, built in honor of Nezami, stands just outside the city of Ganja, Azerbaijan Republic. It is a tall cylindrical building, surrounded by gardens. To one side, there is a metal statue commemorating Nezami's epic poems. The mausoleum was originally built in 1947 in place of an old collapsed mausoleum, and rebuilt in its present form after Azerbaijan Republic regained its independence after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

The Nizami Museum of Azerbaijani Literature (Azerbaijani: Nizami Gəncəvi adına Azərbaycan ədəbiyyatı muzeyi) - was established in 1939, in Baku. It is located in the centre of the capital of Azerbaijan, not far from the fountains square and near the entrance of Icheri Sheher. Now this museum is one of the greatest and richest treasuries of Azerbaijani culture.Collection, research and storage of scientific and other materials about Azerbaijani literature and culture, presentation of these materials on expositions and exhibitions is the mail goal of the museum. There are carried out great scientific researches, published and written books and monographs.Building, where the museum is located, was built in 1850, as a one-storeyed caravanserais. In 1915, the building was given to “Metropol” hotel and the second store was rebuilt. Then, in 1918-1920’s, workers of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic lived and worked there, in 1920-30’s, there located the labor union soviet of Azerbaijan.In summer, 2005, after the visit of Ilham Aliyev-the President of Azerbaijan on December 30, 2004, were prepared new projects, on the basis of which the museum was overhauled and renewed. The Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan Republic assigned 13 million manats for that reason. Area of the exposition was expanded 2500 square meters, and the number of halls upgraded to 30 main and 10 auxiliary. If there were demonstrated only 1000 of 120000 exhibits till the reconstruction, after the reconstruction the number of them reached 25000.

The total area of the museum is 2500 square meters, the 1409 meters of which consists of exposition and 173 square meters of fond. There are more than 3000 manuscripts, rare books, illustrations, portraits, sculptures, miniatures, memories of poets and other exhibits in 30 general and 10 auxiliary halls of the museum’s exposition. Part of the museum is a book shop.

The sculptures of the eminent Azerbaijani poets and writers were placed on the façade of the museum on the following way: Muhammad Fuzuli (sculptor: F. Abdurrahmanov), Molla Panah Vagif (sculptor: S. Klyatskiy), Mirza Fatali Akhundov (sculptor: P.Sabsai), Khurshidbanu Natavan (sculptor: Y. Tripolskaya), Jalil Mammadguluzadeh (sculptor: N.Zakharov), and Jafar Jabbarly (sculptor: S. Klyatskiy). There are 120000 exemplars of the museum exhibits stored in the fond of the museum.

A manuscript of Nizami’s “Isgendername”, which was written in 1413, exemplar of a manuscript of Fuzuli’s “Bangu-Bade” (1569), “The Eastern poem about Pushkin’s decease” of Mirza Fatali Akhundov, personal autographs and other exhibits and expositions of great value are prides of the museum.

Nizami Street (Azerbaijani: Nizami küçəsi) is a large pedestrian and shopping street in downtown Baku, Azerbaijan, named after famed classical poet Nizami Ganjavi. The street's history could be traced back to Baku's town-planning project of 1864. The street runs through the city's downtown from west to east. The traffic-free segment, which begins at the Fountains Square and ends at the Rashid Behbudov Street, is commonly known as Torgovaya ("the merchant street" in Russian).

Nizami Street is home to various outlets, from banks to fashion stores. It also accommodates the embassies of Germany, Norway, the Netherlands and Austria, as well as the European Union Delegation to Azerbaijan. The nearest metro stations are Sahil (red line, south of Nizami Street) and 28 May (both red and green lines, north of the street).

The Akhundov Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater (Azeri: Axundov adına Azərbaycan Dövlət Akademik Opera və Balet Teatrı) is a theatre in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was built in 1911.The theatre was built at the request of millionaire Daniel Mailov and funded by Zeynalabdin Taghiyev. According to an urban legend, Mailov and his brother were not invited to a housewarming ball of a famous opera singer from Baku whose new house (now the head office of SOCAR) was one of the most outstanding pieces of architecture in the city. 

In 1916, the theatre acquired a resident organization (Pavel Amirago's opera troupe) and began to function on a permanent basis. In 1920, it became a state theatre known as the Opera and Ballet Theatre. In 1925, the Azerbaijani Opera Troupe, the Russian Opera Troupe and the Drama Troupe united to become the official resident organization, and in 1927 the theatre was named after writer Mirza Fatali Akhundov. In 1959, it received the status of an academic theatre.

In 1985, the newly-renovated theatre mysteriously burned down. In 1987, all the restoratory works were finished and the theatre reopened its doors.

Nizami Street (Azerbaijani: Nizami küçəsi) is a large pedestrian and shopping street in downtown Baku, Azerbaijan, named after famed classical poet Nizami Ganjavi. The street's history could be traced back to Baku's town-planning project of 1864. The street runs through the city's downtown from west to east. The traffic-free segment, which begins at the Fountains Square and ends at the Rashid Behbudov Street, is commonly known as Torgovaya ("the merchant street" in Russian).

Nizami Street is home to various outlets, from banks to fashion stores. It also accommodates the embassies of Germany, Norway, the Netherlands and Austria, as well as the European Union Delegation to Azerbaijan. The nearest metro stations are Sahil (red line, south of Nizami Street) and 28 May (both red and green lines, north of the street).

Old City or Inner City (Azerbaijani: İçəri Şəhər) is the historical core of Baku. In December 2000, the Old City of Baku, including the Palace of the Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower, became the first location in Azerbaijan to be classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

It is widely accepted that the Old City, including its Maiden Tower, date at least to the 12th century, with some researchers contending that construction dates as far back as the 7th century. The question has not been completely settled. 

During this medieval period of Baku, such monuments as the Synyg Gala Minaret (11th century), the fortress walls and towers (11th–12th centuries), the Maiden Tower, the Multani Caravanserai and Hajji Gayyib bathhouse (15th century), the Palace of the Shirvanshahs (15th-16th centuries), the Bukhara Caravanserai and Gasimbey bathhouse (16th century) were built.

In 1806, when Baku was annexed by the Russian Empire, there were 500 households and 707 shops, and a population of 7,000 in the Old City (then the only neighbourhood of Baku). Between 1807-1811, the city walls were repaired and the fortifications extended. The city had two gates: the Salyan Gates and the Shemakha Gates. The city was protected by dozens of cannons set on the walls. The port was re-opened for trade, and in 1809 a customs office was established.

In 2008 an ancient underpass, dated back to the 19th century, was discovered while holding reconstruction at Vahid park. The workers marched about 200 meters along the tunnel, but then stopped, having met with water and silt masses. Judging by the photographs taken in the cave, the tunnel is built very thoroughly, the walls, ceiling and floor of the tunnel are paved with white sawn stone. The workers also found a handful of coins of the Soviet period, suggesting that there was somebody in the tunnel before them, but the unknown went down at least 20 years ago. 

According to scholar Vitaly Antonov, in the late 18th century Baku was the Caucasian center of the revolutionary movement, and the found underpass was dug to save the governor in case of mass riots in the city. Another version is that this passage is one of the several, leading to the ancient Sabayil Castle, flooded by the Caspian Sea. There are several underground tunnels leading from the Palace of Shirvanshahs and Synykh Gala, situated in Icheri Shekher, to the sea. Synykh Gala was the mosque in the 15th century, in the times of the Shah Ismail Khatai, and was destroyed by the troops of Peter I. That is, the discovered passage is part of the underground network connecting the city of Sabayil to the land.

Palace Masjid is a masjid in Baku, Azerbaijan located inside of Palace of the Shirvanshahs complex. It was built in 1441-1442.

Qafqaz University (Azerbaijani: Qafqaz Universiteti; the name translates as Caucasus University) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was founded in 1993 and was the first and the only foreign private university in the country.Qafqaz University was founded in 1993 with the decree of Azerbaijani National Assembly and the approval of Council of Ministers. This way, Turkish businessmen started their voluntary contributions to educational services through Cag Educational in Azerbaijan after its independence. Qafqaz University was the first and is the only foreign private university in Azerbaijan.

Qafqaz University operated in two temporary service buildings in Baku from the day it was founded until the 2003-2004 academic year. However, these buildings of 4000 m2 were not sufficient as they were not large enough or technically satisfactory.

The Xirdalan campus area was given to the university with the efforts of the late President Haydar Aliyev. We relocated to our new premises in the 2003-2004 academic year. Our new service building where all the classrooms are situated has a 10500 m2 indoor area. This spatial factor is a major contributory element that has enabled the university to make a lot of progress ever since. As a result of this, the number of the departments doubled and reached twenty. Student population rose dramatically to 2200.A dormitory building for male students was built in the 2005–2006 academic year.Currently,the construction of the building for the Coordinating Unit for Language Teaching and the dormitory for female students is underway.

Qafqaz University is the first institution where the TOEFL IBT, new generation TOEFL test, can be taken thanks to its high speed internet connection.

International Quality Management Certificate

Qafqaz University is the first higher educational institution which received the ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management Certificate in Azerbaijan.

Sheikh İbrahim Mosque is a mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was built in 1416.
Taza Pir Mosque (also Tazapir, Teze Pir, Teze-Pir, Tezepir) is a mosque in Baku, Azerbaijan. It was finished in 1914 and built in honour of the philanthropist.

Construction of the mosque was started in 1905 by architect Ziver bey Ahmadbeyov under the patronage of Nabat Khanum Ashurbayova. After the death of the patron, the construction was suspended. Soon, however, it resumed with the support of her son and was completed in 1914.

Only 3 years after opening the mosque was closed in connection with the October Revolution in 1917. Over the years the mosque functioned as a cinema and a barn, and since 1943 to present day - as a mosque. Akhund of the mosque is the Grand Mufti of the Caucasus Allahshukur Pashazadeh.

Interior of the mosque has an area of 1400 square meters and decorated with ornaments of painting schools of Azerbaijan plus with samples from eastern ornaments. The height of the dome and a half meters. The mihrab and dome of the mosque made of marble, while decorative elements of the mosque, the tops of minarets and labels are made of gold.

The dome, on which 6 times written La ilaha ilallah from Muslim proclamation of faith or Shahada, made from Qızılqaya (Gyzylgaya) stone.

Taza Pir Masjid in Baku Azerbaijan, Restoration

The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was the main Russian Orthodox church in Baku, Azerbaijan from 1898, when it was built until its destruction in 1936 during the Stalin era. The cathedral is also known as the biggest Russian Orthodox structure ever built in the South Caucasus. It was the highest structure in Baku until its demolition in 1936.
The monument symbolizes the woman of Azerbaijan who gets rid of paranja. The building behind the monument is the building Zohar was talking about, where several firms including Bank Melli Iran are allocated. This office tower and the monument itself are under reconstruction now. It will be very modern soon. I will shoot it and share the photos of its new sight when i go back to Baku.

The Khojaly Monument in Baku is dedicated to the hundreds of innocent people killed in the karabakh war during the night on 25 February 1992.

Tuba Shaxi Mosque is a masjid in Mardakan, Baku, Azerbaijan. It was built in 1481-2.
Western University (Azerbaijani: Qərb Universiteti) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. Founded in 1991 by Husein Baghirov, it has six schools, 25 majors, 180 faculty and approximately 1000 students. The university took its name because it is modeled after Western universities in style of instruction and values, the latter in response to some of the corrupt practices under the Soviet system. Much of the instruction there is conducted in English.

In the late 1990s, the school partnered with American universities, such as Indiana University, to help set up its programs in business and law. Many of its partnerships were formed through the now defunct United States Information Agency. Currently, the school has ties with Indiana University, University of Kansas, Mississippi Valley State University, University of North Alabama and Delta State University.

Entry to the western university is very competitive. Citizens of Azerbaijan are required to achieve a minimum score of 500 ( out of 700) in the NUAT exams. International applicants are also welcome.

To make a competitive application IB candidates are expected to achieve a score of at least 38 points , including 39 points for Medicine , Economics and Law.

Conditional offer for A level students will be at least AAA including an A grade in required subjects.

An A* grade in Biology will be required for studying Medicine.

Applicants from Turkey are expected to achieve a similar score in NUAT exams.

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