Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Historic Yerevan, the Capital of Armenia; Image Gallery

Yerevan (Armenian: Երևան or Երեւան, Armenian pronunciation: [jɛɾɛˈvɑn], is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia.

The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide settled in the area. The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became one of the fifteen republics in the Soviet Union. In fifty years, Yerevan was transformed from a town of a few thousand residents within the Russian Empire, to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government.

With the growth of the economy of the country, Yerevan has been undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail outlets such as restaurants, shops and street cafes, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied.

In 2010, the population of Yerevan was estimated to be 1,119,000 people 34% of all the population of Armenia. 

Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO.

Erebuni Fortress (Armenian: Էրեբունի Բերդ) also known as Arin Berd (Armenian: Արին Բերդ; meaning the "Fortress of Blood") is a fortified city from the ancient kingdom of Urartu, located in what is present-day Yerevan, Armenia. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of the vast kingdom. The name Yerevan itself is derived from Erebuni.

Erebuni was founded by King Argishti I (r. ca. 785–753 B.C.) in 782 B.C. It was built on top of a hill called Arin Berd overlooking the Arax River Valley to serve as a military stronghold to protect the kingdom's northern borders. According to Margarit Israelyan, Argishti began the construction of Erebuni after conquering the territories north of Yerevan and west of Lake Sevan, roughly corresponding to where the town of Abovyan is currently located. Accordingly, the prisoners he captured in these campaigns, both men and women, were used to help build his town.

Avan Church (Armenian: Ավան եկեղեցի; also Katoghike, later renamed Surb Hovhannes; locally known as Tsiranavor) is located in the town of Avan now absorbed by Yerevan's city limits, and is the city's oldest surviving church. It was built in the late 6th century between the years 591, 595-602 by the pro-Byzantine Catholicos Hovhannes Bagavanetsi to be his headquarters. He was installed as prelate of Byzantine Armenia by the Byzantine emperor Mauricius. His rival, the pro-Persian Catholicos' headquarters were located in the ancient city of Dvin. Located adjacent to the church on the north side are the foundations of the palatial residence of Catholicos Hovhannes thought to have been constructed before the church around the years 581-582. According to the Armenian historian Sebeos, both structures were built under the Catholicos' supervision. The church is believed to have been dedicated to the apostles. In the year 602 the Persian King Khosrov II seized Avan, and having eliminated the Avanian Catholicos, transformed it into a monastery.

The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; TAO: Հայաստանի Առաջին Հանրապետութիւն, RAO: Հայաստանի Առաջին Հանրապետություն Hayastani Arajin Hanrapetut’yun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia) was the first modern establishment of an Armenian state. The republic was established in the former territory of Eastern Armenia in the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917. The leaders of the government came from the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (also known as the ARF or Dashnaktsutyun) and other Armenian political parties who helped create the new republic. When it was established, it bordered the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north, the Ottoman Empire to the west, Persia to the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to the east.

From the very onset, the DRA was plagued with a variety of domestic and foreign problems. Many of its inhabitants were Armenian refugees who had fled the massacres of the Armenian Genocide in Western Armenia and it almost did not come into existence because of the advances of the armies of the Ottoman Empire, which were intent on eliminating the Armenian people living in the area. The republic lasted for two years, until 1920, when it was finally overwhelmed by Mustafa Kemal's Turkish nationalist government and Soviet Russia.

Yerevan was the first city in the Soviet Union, for which a general plan was developed. The "General Plan of Yerevan" was developed by the academician Alexander Tamanyan which was approved in 1924. The plan was designed for a population of 150,000.

During the Soviet era the city was transformed into a modern industrial metropolis of over a million people, to become a significant scientific and cultural centre.

Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban construction. His design presented a radial-circular arrangement that overlaid the existing city. As a result, many historic buildings were demolished, including churches, mosques, the Persian fortress, baths, bazaars and caravanserais. Many of the surrounding districts around Yerevan were named after former Armenian communities that were decimated by the Ottoman Turks during the Armenian Genocide. The districts of Arabkir, Malatya-Sebastia and Nork Marash, for example, were named after the towns Arabkir, Malatya, Sebastia, and Marash, respectively. Following the end of the World War II, German POWs were used to help in the construction of new buildings and structures, such as the Kievyan Bridge.

Alexander Tamanian (Armenian: Ալեքսանդր Թամանյան, Russian: Таманян, Александр Оганесович, March 4, 1878, Yekaterinodar - February 20, 1936, Yerevan) was a Russian-born Armenian neoclassical architect, who is remembered today for his work in the city of Yerevan.

Born in the city of Yekaterinodar in 1878 in the family of a banker. He graduated from the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in 1904. His works portrayed sensitive and artistic neoclassical trends popular in those years. Some of his early works included the mansion of V. P. Kochubei in Tsarskoye Selo, 1911–1912; the house of Prince S. A. Scherbatov in Novinski Boulevard in Moscow, 1911–1913; the village railway employees housing and the tuberculosis sanatorium at the Prozorovskaya station (now Kratovo) near Moscow, 1913–1923; central workshops of Kazan railway in Lyubertsy, 1916).

He became an Academician of Architecture in 1914, in 1917 he was elected as the Vice-President of the Academy of Arts. In 1923 he moved to Yerevan, heading the new construction effort in the republic. He was the chief engineer of the local Council of People's Commissars and was a member of the CEC of the Armenian SSR (1925–1936), sponsored the construction industry, designed the layouts of towns and villages including Leninakan (now Gyumri) (1925), Nor-Bayazet (now Gavar) and Ahta-ahpara (both in 1927), Echmiadzin (1927–1928), and others. Tamanian created the first general plan of the modern city of Yerevan which was approved in 1924. Tamanian's style was instrumental in transforming what was essentially a small provincial city into the modern Armenian capital, a major industrial and cultural center. Neoclassicism dominated his designs but Tamanian also implemented a national flavor (red linings of tuff, traditional decorative carvings on stone etc.). Among his most famous designs in Yerevan are the hydroelectric station (ERGES-1, 1926), the Opera and Ballet house named after A. Spendiarian (1926–1953), the Republic Square (1926–1941) and others. He also played a major role in the development of restoration projects of historical landmarks in the country, chairing the Committee for the Protection of Historic Monuments in Armenia. He was married to Camilla Edwards, a member of the Benois family. Their sons Georgi and Yulius Tamanian also became respected architects and continued their father's work. Tamanian died in Yerevan on February 20, 1936.

Republic Square (Armenian: Հանրապետության հրապարակ Hanrapetu'tyan hraparak, formerly Lenin Square (Armenian: Լենինի հրապարակ Lenini hraparak; Russian: Площадь Ленина Ploshchad Lenina) is the large central town square in Yerevan, Armenia. The square is intersected by the following streets: Abovian, Nalbandian, Tigran Mets Avenue, Vazgen Sargsyan and Amiryan streets.

The oval shaped square has a stone pattern in the centre, meant to look like a traditional Armenian rug from above. The large dancing water fountains are located at the northern forehead of the square in front of the National Gallery.

The Republic Square is the place where ceremonies and meetings are held. The statue of Lenin used to be located in the southern forehead of the square, but when Armenia regained its independence, the statue was brought down and replaced with a large TV monitor.

Northern Avenue (Armenian: Հյուսիսային Պողոտա), first conceived by Alexander Tamanyan, is a pedestrian avenue in Yerevan, linking the Opera House with Republic Square.

Although it was planned in the earlier part of the 1900s, and no construction was allowed in this section of the city, the actual plan was never implemented during Soviet times. A decade after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the city of Yerevan decided to begin construction on the avenue. According to the original plans, The National Gallery and History Museum in Republic Square was never meant to be built where it is, so Northern Avenue ends near the building, rather than open directly into Republic Square.

The Azgayin Zhoghov of Armenia (Armenian: Ազգային Ժողով; English: National Assembly) is the official name of the legislative branch of the government of Armenia.

Until the promulgation of the Hatt-i Sharif of 1839, the patriarch and his clients, within limits, possessed authority over Armenian people in the Ottoman Empire. The first step to Constitutional parliamentary activity still in the 19th century began with the Armenian National Constitution of 1860 in the Ottoman Empire. In line with this particular constitutional document Armenian National Assembly (Ottoman Empire) began to convene its sessions with 140 members. It dealt with the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire's domestic activity, as well as national, religious, educational, cultural and other issues.

In 1917 the February revolution caused great changes and sociopolitical shifts in the vast Russian Armenia. The first steps were undertaken towards democratization of the Democratic Republic of Armenia. National life awoke and national self-consciousness grew through Armenian National Councils which established the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians. At the initiative of the Armenian political parties mainly Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Armenian national congress was summoned in later September and earlier October 1917. The congress, held in Tiflis brought together 203 and declared the first Armenian Republic.

The National Assembly is a unicameral body. It comprises 131 members, elected for four-year terms: 56 members in single-seat constituencies and 75 by proportional representation. The proportional-representation seats in the National Assembly are assigned on a party-list basis amongst those parties that receive at least 5% of the total of the number of the votes. The current speaker of the National Assembly is Hovik Abrahamyan from 2008. Its predecessor was the Supreme Soviet.

Saint Sarkis Cathedral (Armenian: Սուրբ Սարգիս Եկեղեցի) is an Armenian church in Yerevan, Armenia. It is the seat of the Araratian Patriarchal Diocese. It is located on the left bank of the Hrazdan River in the Kentron District.

The St. Sarkis Church, together with the hermitage-monastery, was destroyed by the large earthquake of 1679. It was, however, rebuilt on the same site during the rule of His Holiness Edesatsi Nahabet Catholicos (1691–1705). The present St. Sarkis Church was rebuilt once again during the period 1835-1842.

During the years 1971-1976, the interior look of the church was significantly improved. On the eastern part of the church, a gallery was added for the church choir. As a result of such additions, it was found necessary to remove the old dome and the old drum and to replace them by a much higher dome with polyhedral fan-shaped spire. The construction of the bell tower of the St. Sarkis Vicarial Church was completed in 2000.

The National Gallery of Armenia (NGA) is one of the biggest museums of the Republic of Armenia, locate in its capital, Yerevan.

NGA was founded in 1921 as an art section of the State museum. The foundation of the section has been consisted of dozens of works purchased from Armenian painters' exhibition organized in August 1921. A decisive factor in the formation of the art section was the assignation of the rich collection of The Armenian Palace of Culture / The former Lazarian Gymnasium/ and the donations of Armenian artists to it. Already in 1925 there were exposed about 400 works of Armenian, Russian and European masters in the six halls of the art section.

In 1935 the art section was changed into Art Museum, in 1947 it was called State Museum of Armenia and from 1991 it was renamed as National Gallery of Armenia. In 1978 a new 8 storey building was put into exploitation. Now the collection of the NGA includes about 26.000 museum exhibits and the building has 56 exposition halls in which there are presented the museums treasures by temporary and permanent exhibitions.

Matenadaran or The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts (Armenian: Մեսրոպ Մաշտոցի անվան հին ձեռագրերի ինստիտուտ Mesrop Mashtots'i anvan hin dzeṙagreri institut), commonly referred to as the Matenadaran (Armenian: Մատենադարան), is an ancient manuscript repository located in Yerevan, Armenia. It holds one of the world's richest depositories of medieval manuscripts and books which span a broad range of subjects, including history, philosophy, medicine, literature, art history and cosmography in Armenian and many other languages.

The Armenian Genocide—also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, by Armenians, as the Great Crime—was the systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I. It was implemented through wholesale massacres and deportations, with the deportations consisting of forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees. The total number of resulting Armenian deaths is generally held to have been between 1 million and 1.5 million. Other ethnic groups were similarly attacked by the Ottoman Empire during this period, including Assyrians and Greeks, and some scholars consider those events to be part of the same policy of extermination. 

It is widely acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides, as scholars point to the organized manner in which the killings were carried out to eliminate the Armenians, and it is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. The word genocide was coined in order to describe these events.

The starting date of the genocide is conventionally held to be April 24, 1915, the day when Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople. Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, depriving them of food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres were indiscriminate of age or gender, with rape and other sexual abuse commonplace. The majority of Armenian diaspora communities were founded as a result of the Armenian genocide.
The Republic of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, denies the word genocide is an accurate description of the events. In recent years, it has faced repeated calls to accept the events as genocide. To date, twenty countries have officially recognized the events of the period as genocide, and most genocide scholars and historians accept this view.

Sergei Parajanov (Armenian: Սարգիս Հովսեփի Փարաջանյան; Georgian: სერგეი (სერგო) ფარაჯანოვი; Russian: Сергей Иосифович Параджанов; Ukrainian: Сергій Йосипович Параджанов; also spelled Paradzhanov or Paradjanov January 9, 1924 — July 20, 1990) was a Soviet Armenian film director and artist. 

He invented his own cinematic style, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism (the only sanctioned art style in the USSR). This, combined with his controversial lifestyle and behaviour, led Soviet cinema authorities to repeatedly persecute and imprison him and suppress his films.

The Alexander Spendiarian Armenian Opera and Ballet National Academic Theatre (Armenian: Ալեքսանդր Սպենդիարյանի անվան օպերայի և բալետի ազգային ակադեմիական թատրոն) in Yerevan was officially opened on 20 January 1933. The building was designed by the Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian. The building consists of two concert halls: Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the hall of the Alexander Spendiarian Opera and Ballet National Theatre.

Zvartnots International Airport (Armenian: Զվարթնոց Միջազգային Օդանավակայան Zvart'nots' Mijazgayin Odanavakayan) (IATA: EVN, ICAO: UDYZ) is located near Zvartnots, 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The airport was built in 1961. It is now the busiest airport in Armenia and the Caucasus. The draftsmen of the airport included architects M. Khachikyan, A. Tarkhanyan, J. Sheqhlyan, L. Cherkezyan and designers H. Tigranyan, A. Meschyan, and constructor M. Baghdasaryan. The airport was renovated in the 1980s with the development of a new terminal area, in order to meet domestic traffic demands within the Soviet Union.

The Yerevan trolleybus system forms part of the public transport network in Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. Since the closure of the Gyumri trolleybus system in 2005, it has been Armenia's only trolleybus system.

Yerevan has 46 bus lines and 24 trolleybus lines. The Yerevan trolleybus system has been operating since 1949. Old Soviet-era buses have been replaced with new modern ones. Outside the bus lines that cover the city, some buses at the start of the central road train station located in the Nor Kilikia neighborhood serve practically all the cities of Armenia as well as of others abroad, notably Tbilisi in Georgia or Tabriz in Iran.

A new route network has been developed in the city, according to which the number of minibuses will be reduced from the currently existing 2600 to 650 by the end of 2010.

The tramway network that operated in Yerevan since 1906 was decommissioned in January 2004. Its use had a cost 2.4 times higher than the generated profits, which pushed the municipality to shutdown the network, despite a last ditch effort to save it towards the end of 2003. Since the closure, the rails have been dismantled and sold.

The Central Bank of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Կենտրոնական Բանկ) is the central bank of Armenia with its headquarters in Yerevan. The CBA is an independent institution responsible for issuing all banknotes and coins in the country, overseeing and regulating the banking sector and keeping the government's currency reserves. The CBA is also the sole owner of the Armenian Mint.

The current chair of the CBA is Arthur Javadyan.

There is integration of the Republic of Armenia and its Central Bank in the world community. The CBA maintains mutual cooperation with:
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • World Bank
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • Asian Development Bank
The international cooperation has allowed the CBA to begin realization of the received credits on transformation system, maintenance of balance of payments, financing of private business, institutional and rehabilitation loans, and other similar programs.

The positive results of work with the international financial organizations opens new prospects for the realization of joint projects together with various economic institutes and large banks of the world.

Mother Armenia (Armenian: Մայր Հայաստան Mayr Hayastan) is the female personification of Armenia. Her most visual rendering is a monumental statue in Victory Park overlooking the capital city of Yerevan, Armenia.

The current statue replaces a monumental statue of Joseph Stalin that was created as a victory memorial for the second world war. During Stalin's reign of the Soviet Union, Grigor Harutyunyan, the first secretary of the Armenian Communist Party's Central Committee and members of the government oversaw the construction of the monument which was completed and unveiled to the people on November 29, 1950. The statue was considered a masterpiece of the sculptor Sergey Merkurov. The pedestal was designed by architect Rafayel Israyelian. Realizing that occupying a pedestal can be a short-term honour, Israyelian designed the pedestal to resemble a three-nave basilic Armenian church, as he confessed many years later "Knowing that the glory of dictators is temporary, I have built a simple three-nave Armenian basilic". In contrast to the right-angled shapes of the external view, the interior is light and pleasing to the eye and resembled Echmiadzin's seventh-century St. Hripsime Church.

In spring 1962, the statue of Stalin was removed, with one soldier being killed and many injured during the process, and replaced by the Mother Armenia statue, designed by Ara Harutyunyan.

"Mother Armenia" has a height of 22 meters, thus making the overall height of the monument 51 meters, including the pedestal. The statue is built of hammered copper while the pedestal-museum is of basalt.

The Mother Armenia statue symbolises peace through strength. It can remind viewers of some of the prominent female figures in Armenian history, such as Sose Mayrig and others, who took up arms to help their husbands in their clashes with Turkish troops and Kurdish irregulars. It also recalls the important status and value attributed to the older female members of an Armenian family.

Its strategic location on a hill overlooking Yerevan makes it look like a guardian of the Armenian capital. Every year on 9 May, thousands of Armenians visit the statue of Mother Armenia and lay flowers to commemorate the Armenian martyrs of the World War II. The pedestal hosts the Mother Armenia Military Museum of the Ministry of Defense. When first built, it was a military museum dedicated to the World War II. Now a large proportion of the exhibition space is devoted to the Nagorno-Karabakh War of the 1980-1990s. There are personal belongings, weapons and documents of the heroes, and walls are decorated with their portraits. There is a historical map on which Armenian forces worked for the capture of Shusha, among other historical artifacts.

Yerablur (Armenian: Եռաբլուր) is a military cemetery located on a hilltop in the outskirts of Yerevan, Armenia. Since 1988, Yerablur has become the home of the Armenian soldiers who have lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh war. Many famous Armenian heroes are buried in this military cemetery including Vazgen Sargsyan, (Defense and Prime Minister of Armenia from 1992-1999), Monte Melkonian (famed Armenian military commander in the Nagorno-Karabakh war) and Andranik Ozanian (an Armenian general and freedom fighter in 1910's)

The American University of Armenia (AUA) is a private, nonsectarian, independent university founded in 1991 in Yerevan, Armenia. Its creation inspired in the aftermath of the 1988 Leninakan Earthquake, the university is the first Armenian institution modeled on Western-style higher education, committed to teaching, research, and service.

The university currently offers instruction leading to a master's degree in the following eight fields of study: business administration, industrial engineering and systems management, computer and information science, political science, public health, law, comparative legal studies, and teaching English as a foreign language. By offering these programs in English, AUA strives to become accessible to qualified individuals from other countries in the region.

Qualified students may complete an interdisciplinary Certificate in Environmental Conservation and Research. In preparation for the academic program, AUA offers its students instruction in the English language and in computer applications.

Officially Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex (Armenian: Կարեն Դեմիրճյանի անվան Մարզահամերգային Համալիր), also known as Demirchyan Arena, Sports & Music Complex, or simply Hamalir (for complex in Armenian), is a huge sports and concert complex located on Tsitsernakaberd hill which dominates over the western parts of Yerevan, near the Hrazdan River gorge. The complex consists of two big halls; the concert hall and the sports hall, in addition to the Hayastan conferences hall designated for political summits with a huge space which gives the facility to organize fairs and exhibitions.

The complex was opened in 1983 but forced to close within a year and a half after a fire in 1985. A renovation process took place until the end of 1987 when it was ready again to host concerts and sport events. The complex was designed by a group of Armenian architects: A. Tarkhanian, S. Khachikyan, G. Pogosyan and G. Mushegyan. The construction process was supervised by engineers: Hamlet Badalyan (chief engineer) and I. Tsaturian, A. Azizian and M. Aharonian.

Moses of Chorene, also Moses of Khoren, Moses Chorenensis, or Movses Khorenatsi (Armenian: Մովսես Խորենացի, Armenian pronunciation: [mofˈsɛs χoɾɛnɑˈtsʰi], also written Movsēs Xorenac‘i, Movses Khorenats'i, scholars have argued for either fifth century (ca. 410 – 490s AD), or a 7th to 9th century date) was an Armenian historian, and author of the History of Armenia.
He is credited with the earliest known historiographical work on the history of Armenia, but was also a poet, or hymn writer, and a grammarian. The History of Armenia was written at the behest of Prince Sahak Bagratuni and has had an enormous impact on Armenian historiography and was used and quoted extensively by later medieval Armenian authors. Although other Armenians, such as Agat'angeghos, had previously written histories on Armenia, Movses' work holds particular significance because it contains unique material on the old oral traditions in Armenia before its conversion to Christianity and, more important, traces Armenian history from Movses' day to its origins. He is considered to be the "father of Armenian history" (patmahayr), and is sometimes referred to as the "Armenian Herodotus." Khorenatsi's work became the first attempt of a universal history of Armenia. 

Movses identified himself as a young disciple of Saint Mesrop and is recognized by the Armenian Apostolic Church as one of the Holy Translators, although some scholars, especially after the highly-influential 1978 publication of the English translation and commentary of his work, believe that he composed his work much later.

Anania Shirakatsi (Armenian: Անանիա Շիրակացի , Armenian pronunciation: [anania ʃiɹakʼatsʰi], also known as Ananias of Shirak; 610 – 685) was an Armenian mathematician, astronomer and geographer. He is commonly attributed to having written the Geography (Ashkharhatsuyts, in Armenian).

Scholars do not agree on where Anania was born. Some historians believe that he was born in Shirakavan; others, that the village of Anania in Shirak or the city of Ani was his birthplace. Unlike many other notable figures, Anania did leave behind an autobiography. It is known that he was the son of John (Hovhannes) of Shirak and possibly a member of the noble Kamsarakan or Arsharuni princes of the region. It is believed that he received his primary education at a school named Dprevank', and that from a very early age he found himself attracted to mathematics. He left Armenia and traveled abroad for eleven years in the hopes of getting a better education.

Upon the recommendation of several of his friends who were returning from Constantinople, he decided to find a suitable teacher in Trebizond in the Byzantine Empire. There he met and fell under the tutelage of a renowned Greek scholar who spoke Armenian, Tychikos, and spent eight years learning mathematics there. Anania profited greatly from his mentor's teachings, as evidenced from the writings in his autobiography, " acquired a perfect knowledge of mathematics. In addition, I also learned a few elements of other sciences." He left Byzantium and returned to his homeland in 651, determined to spread his knowledge among his fellow Armenians, opening a school that taught the quadrivium and authoring textbooks to educate his students.

Anania is considered the founder of the study of the natural sciences in Armenia. For centuries, his works were used at schools in Armenia as textbooks. The Anania Shirakatsi Medal is an Armenian State Award for scientists in the economics and natural sciences, engineers and inventors. In 2005, the Central Bank of the Republic of Armenia issued an Anania Shirakatsi commemorative coin.

The History Museum of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Պատմության Թանգարան) is the national museum of Armenia founded in 1919 as Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library. It is located on the Republic Square in Yerevan.

The History Museum of Armenia was founded by the Parliament Law No. 439, September 9, 1919. It was called Ethnographic-Anthropological Museum-Library and had Yervand Lalayan as its first director. It started receiving visitors on August 20, 1921. Museum was renamed State Central Museum of Armenia (1922), Cultural-Historical Museum (1931), Historical Museum (1935), State History Museum of Armenia (1962) and History Museum of Armenia (2003).

The Cafesjian Center for the Arts (also known as the Cafesjian Museum Foundation) is an art museum in Yerevan, Armenia. It is situated in central Yerevan in the area in and around the Cascade. At the core of the museum's permanent collection is the Gerard L. Cafesjian Collection of Art. The inauguration took place on the 17th November 2009.

Construction began in the Spring of 2005 and was expected to be completed in Spring 2008. The Museum was completed in the Fall of 2009.

The museum was inaugurated on November 7, 2009, in Yerevan. The opening ceremony was attended by the Armenian president Serzh Sargsyan, minister of culture Hasmik Poghosyan, minister of Diaspora Hranush Hakobyan, as well as representatives of diplomatic missions in Armenia, various artists and political figures.

The "Blue Mosque" was built by Iran, and is also known as the "Persian Mosque," "Gök Jami", (Azerbaijani: Göy məscid, Armenian: Կապույտ Մզկիթ, Kapuyt Mzkit or Գյոյ Մզկիթ, Gyoy Mzkit; Persian: مسجد کبود, Masjed-e Kabud). The mosque is in Yerevan, Armenia. The Yerevan region was under various Muslim rulers since the incursions of Timur in the 14th century. Since the second third of the 18th century, when it had been taken from the Ottomans, it had been a province of Iran (ruled successively by Nadir Shah, Karim Khan Zand and the dynasty from the Qajar tribe) before it fell to Russia in 1827.

The Cafesjian Center for the Arts (also known as the Cafesjian Museum Foundation) is an art museum in Yerevan, Armenia. It is situated in central Yerevan in the area in and around the Cascade. At the core of the museum's permanent collection is the Gerard L. Cafesjian Collection of Art. The inauguration took place on the 17th November 2009.

Construction began in the Spring of 2005 and was expected to be completed in Spring 2008. The Museum was completed in the Fall of 2009.

The museum was inaugurated on November 7, 2009, in Yerevan. The opening ceremony was attended by the Armenian president Serzh Sargsyan, minister of culture Hasmik Poghosyan, minister of Diaspora Hranush Hakobyan, as well as representatives of diplomatic missions in Armenia, various artists and political figures.

Saint Gregory the Ilumminator Cathedral (Armenian: Սուրբ Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ Եկեղեցի, Surp Grigor Lusavorich Yekeghetsi) is the largest Armenian church in the world and is located in the Kentron District of Yerevan in Armenia. It is adjacent to the Zoravar Andranik metro station. It is also considered to be one of the largest religious buildings along with Sameba Cathedral in the South Caucasus.

Toros Roslin (Armenian: Թորոս Ռոսլին, Armenian pronunciation: [tʰoɹos roslin]); circa 1210–1270) was the most prominent Armenian manuscript illuminator in the High Middle Ages. Roslin introduced a wider range of narrative in his iconography based on his knowledge of western European art while continuing the conventions established by his predecessors. Roslin enriched Armenian manuscript painting by introducing new artistic themes such as the Incredulity of Thomas and Passage of the Red Sea. In addition he revived the genre of royal portraits, the first Cilician royal portraits having been found in his manuscripts. His style is characterized by a delicacy of color, classical treatment of figures and their garments, an elegance of line, and an innovative iconography. 

The human figures in his illustrations are rendered full of life, representing different emotional states. Roslin's illustrations often occupy the entire surface of the manuscript page and at times only parts of it, in other cases they are incorporated in the texts in harmony with the ensemble of the decoration.

Sirarpie Der-Nersessian devoted the longest chapter in her posthumously published magnum opus Miniature Painting in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia to Toros Roslin whose work she had researched for years. In the chapter she underlines: "Roslin's ability to convey deep emotion without undue emphasis," and in describing one of Roslin's scenes she extols: "The compositional design, the delicate modeling of the individual figures, and the subtle color harmonies show Roslin’s work at its best, equaling in artistic quality some of the finest Byzantine miniatures."

Armenian-American abstract expressionist painter Arshile Gorky was a great admirer of Roslin and in one his letters to his sister in 1944 he wrote: "Toros Roslin is the Renaissance. What electricity the man contains. For me, he is the greatest artist the world produced before the modern age and his use of dimension is exceeded solely by his cubism. Masterful dimensionality, unsurpassed. I bow before our Toros."

A 3.4 meter high statue of Toros Roslin made of basalt was erected in 1967 in front of the entrance of Matenadaran. The statue was designed by Mark Grigoryan and sculpted by Arsham Shahinyan. A fine arts academy named after Toros Roslin was founded in 1981 by the Hamazkayin Armenian Educational and Cultural Association in Beirut, Lebanon.

Komitas Pantheon-Park is located in Yerevan's Shengavit district, on the right side of the main Arshakunyats Avenue. Many outstanding figures of Armenia's artistic world are buried here, including Komitas (1869-1935), one of Armenia’s great composers. His work came to an abrupt and tragic end in 1915; he was so disturbed by the Turkish government's horrific slaughter of the Armenians, that he became insane. He died in Paris, where the best French doctors were unable to cure him. The Pantheon is also the site of the graves of composers Romanos and Spiridon Melikyan, Aram Khachaturian, poets Hovhannes Hovhannesyan, Shushanik Kurghinian, and Avetik Isahakyan, writers William Saroyan, Alexander Shirvanzade, Vrtanes Papazyan, Nairi Zaryan and Suren Kocharyan, historian and Academician Leo, artists Martiros Saryan, Mariam Aslamazian, Hovhannes Abelyan, Hrachia Nersisyan and Vahram Papazyan and architects Toros Toramanyan and Alexander Tamanyan.

Avetik Isahakyan (Armenian: Ավետիք Իսահակյան; Russian: Аветик Саакович Исаакян; October 31 [O.S. October 19] 1875), Ghazarapat, near Aleksandropol, current Gyumri, Russian Empire – October 17, 1957, Yerevan) was a prominent Armenian lyric poet, writer, academian and public activist.

Karen Demirchyan (Armenian: Կարեն Սերոբի Դեմիրճյան, Russian: Карен Серобович Демирчян; April 17, 1932 — October 27, 1999) was a Soviet Armenian communist, First Secretary of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1974 to 1988 and later independent politician. Soon after his reemergence into active politics in independent Armenia in the late 1990s, he became speaker of the Armenian parliament in 1999 until his assassination with other politicians in parliament in the Armenian parliament shooting.

Soghomon Gevorki Soghomonyan - Komitas ("Սողոմոն Գևորգի Սողոմոնյան" - "Կոմիտաս" in Armenian), by Western Armenian transliteration also Gomidas, born on September 26 or October 8a 1869 in Kütahya, Ottoman Empire, died on October 22, 1935 in Paris, France, was an Armenian priest, composer, choir leader, singer, music ethnologist, music pedagogue and musicologist. Many regard him as the founder of modern Armenian classical music.

Mher (Frunzik) Mushegovich Mkrtchyan (Armenian: Մհեր (Ֆրունզիկ) Մուշեղի Մկրտչյան, Russian: Мгер (Фрунзик) Мушегович Мкртчян; 4 July 1930 – 29 December 1993) was a popular Soviet Armenian actor who was named a People's Artist of the Soviet Union in 1984.

Even though he was known as a comedic actor, Mkrtchyan's personal life was filled with tragedy. His first wife, Donara Mkrtchyan, became mentally ill and was sent to a mental institution for the rest of her life. Mkrtchyan became a single parent of two young children. His son inherited his mother’s mental illness. Thousands of people attended the funeral of their beloved actor.

Sergei Parajanov (Armenian: Սարգիս Հովսեփի Փարաջանյան; Georgian: სერგეი (სერგო) ფარაჯანოვი; Russian: Сергей Иосифович Параджанов; Ukrainian: Сергій Йосипович Параджанов; also spelled Paradzhanov or Paradjanov January 9, 1924 — July 20, 1990) was a Soviet Armenian film director and artist. 

He invented his own cinematic style, which was totally out of step with the guiding principles of socialist realism (the only sanctioned art style in the USSR). This, combined with his controversial lifestyle and behaviour, led Soviet cinema authorities to repeatedly persecute and imprison him and suppress his films.

Sero Nikolai Khanzadyan (November 20, 1916 Goris - June 26, 1998 Yerevan) was an Armenian writer. 

Sero Khanzadyan has created a great legacy of literature work inspired with ideas of internationalism, strong ties with the folk culture and tradition. In his works he defends the ideals of humanism and love to one’s motherland. His ideas of kindness and peace are fully realized and therefore are in eternity. In his latest years of his life, during an interview given to the Public TV of Armenia, he strongly criticized the Bolsheviks for their negative steps towards the annexation of the Armenian regions of Nagorno Karabagh and Nakhijevan in favour of Soviet Azerbaijan.

Shushanik Kurghinian (Armenian: Շուշանիկ Կուրղինյան) (August 18, 1876 – November 24, 1927) was an Armenian writer who became a catalyst in the development of socialist and feminist poetry. She gave voice to the voiceless and saw her role as a poet as profoundly political. Her first poem was published in 1899 in Taraz, and in 1900 her first short story appeared in the journal Aghbyur. After founding the first Hnchakian women’s political group in Alexandrapol, Kurghinian fled to Rostov on Don in order to escape arrests of the tsarist regime. Her first volume of poetry, Ringing of the Dawn, was published in 1907, and one of her poems from this volume was translated and included in Alice Stone Blackwell’s anthology Armenian Poems: Rendered into English Verse (1917). After the Russian Revolution, in 1921 she returned to Soviet Armenia where she lived until her death. Throughout her lifetime, Kurghinian cultivated significant relationships with famous members of the Armenian artistic and literary worlds of her time, including Vrtanes Papazian, Avetik Isahakian, Hovhannes Toumanian, and others.

Vahan Terian (Armenian: Վահան Սուքիասի Տեր-Գրիգորյան; January 28, 1885 – January 7, 1920) was an eminent Georgian born Armenian poet, lyrist and public activist. He is a famous poet known for his sorrowful, romantic poems, the most famous of which are still read and sung in their musical versions by people of all ages.

William Saroyan (Armenian: Վիլյամ Սարոյան Vilyam Saroyan; 31 August 1908 – 18 May 1981) was an Armenian American dramatist and author. The setting of many of his stories and plays is the center of Armenian-American life in California in his native Fresno.

Saint Mesrop Mashtots (also Mesrob, Mashtotz, Armenian: Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց) (361 or 362 – February 17, 440) was an Armenian monk, theologian and linguist. He is best known for having invented the Armenian alphabet, which was a fundamental step in strengthening the Armenian Church, the government of the Armenian Kingdom, and ultimately the bond between the Armenian Kingdom and Armenians living in the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Empire.

Virtually every town in Armenia has a street named after Mashtots. In Yerevan, Mashtots street is one of the most important in the city center, which was previously known as Lenin street (prospect). There is a statue to him at the Matenadaran, one at the church he was buried at in Oshakan village, and one at the monument to the alphabet found on the skirts of Mt. Aragats north of Ohanavan Village. Stamps have been issued with his image by both the Soviet Union and by post-Soviet Armenia.Saint Mesrop also produced a number of liturgical compositions. Some of the works attributed to him are: Megha Qez Ter, Voghormea indz Astvats, Ankanim Aadgi Qo, and Voghormea (Hymns of Repentance).

Mkhitar Gosh (Armenian: Մխիթար Գոշ) (1130–1213) was an Armenian scholar, writer, public figure, thinker, and priest.

He was born in the city of Gandzak. He got his early education from public institutions. When he reached his adolescence he decided to dedicate his life to church. In order to learn theology more thoroughly, Gosh traveled to Cilicia, to Black Mountains (Սև լեռներ) and studies theology under the local priests. Upon his return, he, with Zackareh and Ivaneh Zakarian princes' financial help, builds the Ghetik (Գետիկ) church. He wrote a code of laws including civil and Canon law that was used in both Greater Armenia and Cilicia. It was also used in Poland, by order of king Sigismund the Old, as the law under which the Armenians of Lviv and Kamianets-Podilskyi lived from 1519 until the region fell under Austrian rule in 1772. He also wrote a number of popular fables. He founded the monastery of Nor-Getik which he was later buried. Ever since his death it has better become known as Goshavank. The works of Mkhitar Gosh were later adapted into a Datastanagirk' codex in Middle Armenian, which was prepared by Sempad the Constable, an Armenian noble, military commander, and judge in the 13th century.

Frik was an Armenian poet of the 13th century and 14th century. He lived in the time of Mongolian occupation of Armenian land.

His verses are written in the spirit of religious Fatalism; at the same time, he criticized clergy for hypocrisy.

Surb Zoravor Astvatsatsin Church (Armenian: Սուրբ Զօրաւոր Աստուածածին Եկեղեցի; previously Surb Astvatsatsin) is one of the oldest churches of Yerevan. At first, it was called Surb Astvatsatsin, but later it was renamed 'Surb Zoravor', most probably in the honour of Saint Vartan Mamikonian. The church is located in the Shahar District of Old Yerevan where the tomb and the Chapel of Ananias the Apostle were previously located. This chapel was looked upon as a famous sanctuary.

Erebuni Museum of History (Armenian: Էրեբունու թանգարան) of Foundation of Yerevan was established in 1968. The opening of the museum was timed to coincide with the 2750th anniversary of Yerevan. The Museum stands at the foot of the Arin Berd hill, on top of which the Urartian Fortress Erebouni has stood since 782 BCE. The City-Fortress was excavated, some parts of the structure were reinforced and restored, and the fortress was turned into an outdoor Museum.

A cuneiform inscription testifies that the city was built by Argishti I the King of Urartu in 782 BCE. The majority of the fortress was built from raw bricks. The citadel was encircled by strong walls in some places built in three rows. The temple of God Khaldi occupied an important place in the fortress. The walls of the temple were decorated with numerous frescos. Archeologists have found giant karasses (pitches for storage of wine) buried in the ground. Ceramics, potter’s wheels and other articles used in everyday life were also unearthed during excavations. There is huge collection of artifacts, sups, jars, bronze bracelets, glass, agate beads and many other things that tell us about the life of the citadel, the tastes and habits of its inhabitants. The building of the Museum that houses 12,235 exhibits was constructed by architects Baghdasar Arzoumanian and Shmavon Azatian and sculptor A. Harutiunian. It has two branches in Shengavit and Karmir Blur with 5,288 and 1,620 exhibits respectively in stock.

Gagik Gyurjyan has been the director of the museum since 2009.

The Argavand Funerary Tower is a Turkmen funerary monument built in the year 1413. It is located in the village of Argavand near Yerevan, Armenia which has nearly absorbed it. The monument has one portal It is one of the few Islamic monuments still intact in Armenia.

Alexander Spendiaryan (Armenian: Ալեքսանդր Սպենդիարյան, Russian: Александр Афанасьевич Спендиаров, November 1, 1871 –May 7, 1928) was an Armenian music composer, conductor, founder of Armenian national symphonic music and one of the patriarchs of Armenian classical music. His compositions include the opera Almast and the Yerevan Etudes among others. He studied with the Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who greatly admired his music and encouraged him to turn deeper into his people's folklore.

Aram Ilyich Khachaturian (Armenian: Արամ Խաչատրյան; Russian: Ара́м Ильи́ч Хачатуря́н; June 6 [O.S. May 24] 1903 – May 1, 1978) was a prominent Soviet Armenian composer. Khachaturian's works were often influenced by classical Russian music and Armenian folk music. He is most famous for the Adagio of Spartacus and Phrygia from his ballet Spartacus, and for "Sabre Dance" from his ballet Gayane and the adagio from the same ballet, much used in films since its first use in Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey.

The Yerevan History Museum (Armenian: Երևանի Պատմության Թանգարան) is the history museum of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The museum was founded in 1931 as the Communal Museum. It is located in the Yerevan City Hall.

At the beginning, the museum was located in two rooms, on the second floor, of the Yerevan Fire Department building. In 1936, it was moved to the Blue Mosque (Gyoy-Djami) where had functioned for sixty years. From 1994 to 1997, the museum was located in the building of former Hripsime Female Gymnasium. From 1997 to 2005, the museum functioned in one of the adjacent buildings of the school N1 named after Shahoumian. In 2005, the museum was established in a new building. It forms an architectural complex together with Yerevan Municipality.

There are more than 87,000 objects exposed in the Yerevan History Museum. They represent the local material and spiritual culture from ancient times to the present day. The collections of archaeology, ethnography, numismatics, fine arts, written records, photography and others, kept in the storage of the museum, tell a vivid story about the past and the present of the capital city and its people. There are three scientific expositions of the museum, that have collected, studied and showed objects highlighting the history of Yerevan.

The Yerevan Metro (Armenian: Երեւանի մետրոպոլիտեն, Yerevani metropoliten; since December 1999, Yerevan Metro after Karen Demirchyan, Armenian: Կարեն Դեմիրճյանի անվան Երեւանի մետրոպոլիտեն կայարան) is a rapid transit system that serves the capital of Armenia, Yerevan. The system was launched in 1981 and like most former Soviet Metros, its stations are very deep and intricately decorated with national motifs. The metro runs on a 13.4km (8.37 miles) line and currently services 10 active stations. The use of the system by the city's population has dramatically declined in recent years as a result of the introduction of a new minibus system.

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