Saturday, June 15, 2013

Tangail; a District in Bangladesh

A Market in Tangail, Bangladesh
Tangail (Bengali: টাঙ্গাইল জেলা) (Urdu and Punjabi: تانگیل) is a district (zilla) in central region of Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka division. The population of Tangail zilla is about 3.2 million and its surface area is 3,414.39 km². The main town of Tangail District is the district town Tangail. It is surrounded by the several districts, such as Jamalpur district on the north, the Dhaka and Manikganj districts on the south, the Mymensingh and Gazipur districts on the east, and the Sirajganj district on the west. The main rivers that cross the Tangail district are the Jamuna, Dhaleshwari, Jhenai, Bangshi, Louhajang, Langulia, Elongjani, Jugni, Fotikjani and the Turag. 


The subdivision of Tangail was established in 1870. It was turned into a district on December 1, 1969. The district consists of 10 municipalities, 72 wards of these municipalities, 103 Union Porishods and 2431 villages. 

Entrance of Tangail, Bangladesh
Tangail district is subdivided into 12 Upazilas. These are: 
  • Tangail Sadar Upazila 
  • Sakhipur Upazila 
  • Basail Upazila 
  • Madhupur Upazila 
  • Ghatail Upazila 
  • Kalihati Upazila 
  • Nagarpur Upazila 
  • Mirzapur Upazila 
  • Gopalpur Upazila 
  • Delduar Upazila 
  • Bhuapur Upazila 
  • Dhonbari Upazila, newly formed 
River System

The newly formed Tangail district is flanked on the west by the mighty river Jamuna, which is no where less than 4 miles wide during the rainy season. The Dhaleswari, first an old channel of the Ganges and then of the Brahmaputra, cuts across the south-western comer of the district on its powerful sweep to join the Meghna near Narayanganj. The old, name of Dhaleswari was "Gajghata". It used to flow afterwards by the Salimabad Channel and then at last by Porabari Channell. A part of the eastern boundary of the district runs close to the Banar river. The river Bangshi flows almost down the middle of the district, branching out from the old Brahmaputta to the north from near Jamalpur. Bangshi falls into Dhaleswari near Savar, in Dhaka district. The Bangshi forms a natural barrier to the Madhupur Jungle on the Tangail side, all the way from Madhupur to Mirzapur. It is only fordable at two or three places near Basail on its my to river Meghna. Dhaleswari itself however takes out from the Jamuna from inside Tangail district. 

Louhajang River in Tangail District, BD
Among otter important rivers of the district, Lohajang is worth mentioning. It flows past the district Headquarters of Tangail and is almost dead at present (in moribwid conwtion), Other rivers are Khiru, Nanglai Nadi, Atai, and Jhinai, The old Brahmaputra's most important off-shoot is the Jhinai; striking off near Jamalpur it rejoins the Jamuna north of Sarishabari, while another branch flows past Gopalpur. Now these Sub-systems of rivers, viz, Bangshi and Banar, and the Lohajang, Khiru, Nangtai Nadi, Atia and Jhinai are all dying out because of the shift of the old Brahmaputra river from its former channel to the present Jamuna channel. The most important question in connection with the river system of Tangail vis-a-vis Mymensingh district, is, when and why, the Bmbmaputra river changed its main old channel During the last 150 years or so, this diversion of the old Brahmaputra to its present Jamuna channel, has considerably prompted the geographers and the geologists as well to enquire deep into it. Two theories are advanced. As explanation of the diversion, one theory describes the gradua1 uplift of the Madhupur Tract and a final trigger action of the Teesta diversion in 1787 as the chief factor; and the other theory states that the Brahmaputra diversion resulted directly from a major increase in its volume of water due to beheading of the Tsangpo river of Tibet by Dihang, a tributary of the then small Brahmaputral. It has now been proved that the great Tibetan river Tsangpo joined the Brahmaputra about 1780 and this accession was more important than the Teesta floods in deciding the Brahmaputra to try a shorter way to the sea. With the help of Major James Rennel's maps (1764 to 1773) and of the Revenue Survey it is possible to reconstruct the history of the Bengal Delta and its river systems. It was Rennel who carried out the first ever accurate cadestral surveys and laid the basis for the geographical study of Bengal. At the end of the 18th century probably as a result of the great Tista floods in 1787, the Brahmaputra changed its course and joined the Padma at Goulundo. No piecemmeal study of an intricate river system is possible, without distortion and inadequacy.Even though we assume that the change in the course of the main waters of the old Brahmaputra took place suddenly in 1787, the year of the famous flooding of the Teesta river, it should be taken note of, that the Teesta has been always a wandering river, sometimes joining the Ganges, sometimes being shifted oastwards by the superior strength of the river Ganges and forced. to join the Brahmaputra at last.
A Masjid in Tangail, Bangladesh
Whatever might have been the cause, it is obvious that by 1830, the diversion of old Brahmaputra was complete, ushering in a gradual but radical change in the river system of the Tangail district. The old channel of the Brahmaputra had been reduced to its present insignificance1. 

In 1850 Sir Joseph Hooker wrote "we are surprised to hear that within the last 20 years the main channel of Brahmaputra had shifted its course westwards, its eastern channel silted up so rapidly that the Jamuna eventually became the principal stream. 


There are 3865 mosques, 735 temples, 44 churches and two Buddhist temples In Tangail District.
Building of the Mirzapur Cedit College, Tangail

In Tangail, the average literacy is 29.6%; male 36.1%, female 22.4%. Before the Liberation War, some educational institutions were established by notable persons in Tangail.B.B.Govt Boys' High School was Established In 1880 and B.B.Govt Girls' High School was Established In 1882.Both are Located In Main Town. These are nationally Rewarded Double Shift School. In 1926, the Government Saadat College was established by Wazed Ali Khan Panni, a zamindar and educationalist of Tangail. He named it after the name of his grandfather Saadat Ali Khan Panni. Govt. M.M.Ali College established by Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani at Kagmari (1 km away from main city) is one of the (First Govt. College) topmost colleges in Bangladesh. Kumudini College established in 1943 by Ranada Prasad Saha (R.P.Saha), philanthropist of Tangail. He named it after the name of his mother Kumudini. Later the college was converted into Kumudini Government Women's College. He also established Bharateswari Homes in 1945 at Mirzapur. He named it after his grandmother Bharateswari Devi. Mirzapur Cadet College, the third cadet college of Bangladesh established in 1963. The then president of Pakistan Field Marshal Ayub Khan took initiatives to establish this cadet college. Ex-President Major General Ziaur Rahman was the 1st Cadet and 1st college prefect of this Cadet College. 

Bindu Basini Govt. Girls’ High School, Tangail
Currently, there are 5 Government high schools in the city. Among these schools, Bindu Basini Govt. Boys’ High School (1880) and Bindu Basini Govt. Girls’ High School (1882) were established by a zamindar of Santosh the famous Roy Chowdhury family who also are co-founder of East Bengal club of Calcutta, the Shibnath High School, the Ramkrishna Mission School are old schools and M.A.Karim High School established by Mr. Karim (Silimpur). Tangail has 341 non-government high schools, 86 satellite schools, 4 government colleges, 48 non-government colleges, 3 university colleges, 1 law college, 1 homeopathy college, 1 polytechnic institution, 1 medical assistant training school, 2 nursing institutes, 1 police academy, 202 madrasas, 40 junior schools, 937 government primary schools, 395 non-government primary schools, 1 teachers' training school, 146 community primary schools and 1304 NGO operated schools. 

MBSTU, Tangail, Bangladesh
There is also a science and technology university named Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University located at Santosh, Tangail. Tangail can boast of two of its sons, the Legendary Magician JaduSamrat P.C.Sarkar & First President of Swadhin (independent) Bangladesh Late Abu Syed Chowdhury son of Abdul Hamid Chowdhury (Perlament Speaker). 


Agriculture is the main occupation of the Tangail district. About 49.53% people are involved with agricultural activities. Its main agricultural products are paddy, potato, jute, sugarcane, sesame, linseed, wheat, mustard seed and pulse. About 3,386.53 km² cultivable lands are available in Tangail. The main fruit products are mangos, jackfruit, bananas, litchis, and pineapples. Other sectors, such as fisheries (446), dairies (189), industries, weaving and poultry farms (538) are also developing in the Tangail district. 

Bus Stand at Tangail, Bangladesh
Tangail is the home of the weavers of world famous "Tangail [Saree][Misty (Chom Chom)]" a handloom saree made of both cotton and silk thread having handworked butti design or all over flowery design or contemporary art motiff appreciated, bought, and used by women's & girls of Bangladesh and Indian origin living all over the world. Tangail Saree is the most popular among all sarees. Some of the Weavers have migrated to India after partition in 1947. Haridas Basak a leading Saree merchant in Tangail who helped the weavers to settledown at Fulia, Samudragarh and Dhatrigram in west Bengal his Saree shop is still in Tangail. Tangail Polytechnic Institute Side of the new Bus Stand. 


Tangail is connected with the rest of the country by both road and broad gauge rail lines. Rickhsaw ist the most common mode of transport in the city. Several intercity buses operate regular routes from the Mohakhali Bus Terminal in Dhaka. There are also regular buses from the northern side of the country. Nirala super service is the nonstop bus service.

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