Quba (also, Kuba, Guba and Kuwa; Lezgin: Куба́ Judæo-Tat: Qybə / Гъуьбэ / קאובּא) (Urdu: قوبا) is a city in and the capital of the Quba Rayon of Azerbaijan. It has a population of 38,100. The city’s suburb of Qırmızı Qəsəbə (formerly in Russian: Krasnaya Sloboda, English: Red Town) is the home of Azerbaijan's largest community of Mountain Jews and considered as one of the largest communities of Jews in the former-Soviet Union.
Guba (Quba) city originated from the riverside village of Gudial. In the mid-18th century, after moving his residence from Khudat, Hussain Ali became Quba’s Khan and raised fortress walls around the city. He thereafer attempted to create a state separate from other Azerbaijani khanates. Nevertheless, Quba khanate, the same as other khanates, was occupied by Russia in the early 19th century and annexed by the Russian Empire under the agreement of 1913.
|Guba Mass Grave Memorial Complex in Quba|
Guba mass grave:
In May 1918, an event similar to the March Days occurred in the Guba, where Dashnak detachment, under the command of Hamazasp Srvantsyan, arrived from Baku following Armenian Bolshevist communist politician Stepan Shahumyan's order. According to the investigative commission formed by the Government of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Hamazasp's unit burned and destroyed the city of Quba and killed at least 122 people.
In 2007, during the construction of a stadium, builders discovered a mass grave. Azerbaijani studies claim that the human remains found there were local residents of various nationalities, including Jews and Lezgins, who had been massacred in 1918. To date, 600 human remains have been found, including about 50 children and 100 women.
Quba has enjoyed strong economic growth over the last decade, much of it spurred by tourism and the construction industry.
|Juma Masjid in Quba, Azerbaijan|
This masjid was erected in the 19th century and constructed in typical Quba province style masajid. Inside of the masjid there is a big hall crowned with a huge 16 m diameter dome.
Sakina-Khanum Masjid was built in 1854 by the widow of Abbasgulu Bakikhanov. The mosque was built from red bricks and is similar to faceted cylinder. Each facet has a window in the form of a semicircular arch. The top of the facade is surrounded by an original eaves made from small bricks. From top this stately building is crowned with a big white metal dome in the shape of a multi-faceted helmet. The top of the dome is decorated by a graceful thin spike.
Not far from the Juma Masjid is an old hamam. The hamam is unique in its beehive shaped dome made of brick. The hamam is no longer operational but proves to be an interesting stop on any walking tour.
|Sac, a traditional meal in Quba's cuisine|
Quba's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history. Quba’s signature cuisine includes Quba tıxması, spicy kebab, sac and tandir kebab.
There are seven public schools in Quba. Eleven years education in the schools and consists of primary, secondary and high school stages. There are also private schools in Quba the most wellknown of which is Quba Private Turkish High School. All villages have their own schools.
Main transports to Quba are buses from Baku International Bus Terminal. The buses start to travel at 8:00 a.m every day in 1 hour intervals. Taxi is also available from Baku to Quba anytime. There are also buses from neighbour towns (Khachmaz, Qusar, Shabran, Khudat). Transportation inside Guba from center to villages and different regions is performed by buses, minibuses and taxi, which are available every day.
- Mir Jafar Baghirov, political activist
- Farhad Veliyev, footballer