Şəmkir (also, Anino, Annenfel’d, Annino, Shamkir and Shamkhor) is a city in and the capital of the Shamkir Rayon of Azerbaijan. It is located in the northern foothills of the Lesser Caucasus, on the coast of the Chagirchay River on Tbilisi-Yevlakh highway, about 4 km far from the Dallar railway station. It is the 8th largest city in Azerbaijan due to the population figure.
According to Azerbaijani historian Jahangir Zeynaloglu, the name comes from the Persian word shams (meaning "sun") and kur ("relaying"), referring city was relying on the Sun.
Since the V century the city is known as Shamkur – the great trade and handicraft centre of Persia. In 652, the city was seized by the Arabian troops. In 737, Khazars were resettled to Shamkir after the Arabian commander Mervan’s campaign to the Volga. In 752, the city was destroyed by the Sabir people, who lived not far from the city and deprecated the Arabs. In 854, the Muslim Khazars took refuge in re-established Shamkir. Later, the city was under the reign of Ganja amirs from the Kurdish dynasty of Shaddadids. In XII century-in the beginning of the XIII centuries Shamkir was under the Georgian reign.
In 1195, the Georgian Queen Tamar’s commanders destroyed the troops of Azerbaijan’s Atabey Abu-Bakr, who was from Seljuk dynasty of the Ildegizids. In 1235, Shamkir was destroyed by Mongolian noyon Molar. From the first quarter of the XVI century till the beginning of the XIX century Shamkir was governed by hereditary rulers of Azerbaijani (Qizilbash) tribe called Shamsaddinli-Zulgadar. In 1803, during the military actions against Ganja khanate, Shamkir was taken up by Russian troops and annexed to Russia. On September 3, 1826, during the Russo-Iran war Shakh’s guard consisting of 10000 soldiers was destroyed under Shamkir. In 1818, a German colony, resettled from Wurttemberg to Annenfeld appeared in the territory of Shamkir. From 1914 the city was called Annino, but from 1938-Shamkhor. In 1944, Shamkhor was given the city status. In 1991, the historical name of the city was restored.
There are cognac and wine plants and also a plant of local industry functioning in the city.
According to the [Soviet Census (1989)|Soviet Census of 1989]] there lived 27 917 people, but in 2002-35 000 people and in 2008-37 773 people in Shamkir.
- Molla Vali Vidadi, poet
- Agdolag Mammad Agha – grandfather of the famous General of the Russian Army –
- Ali-Agha Shikhlinski.